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bios resume by janet moyles spiral ring Aby mozliwe bylo korzystanie z komputera, pamiec CMOS RAM musi zawierac informacje dotyczace dostepnych w nim dyskow oraz innych jego mozliwosci. End? Program Setup, w ktory jest wyposazony komputer, umozliwia aktywacje funkcji uruchamianych po jego starcie. Janet Moyles Spiral? Uruchomienie i dostep do programu BIOS Setup. When New Deal? Aby otworzyc program BIOS Setup, zazwyczaj konieczne jest ponowne uruchomienie komputera i nastepnie, w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST, nacisniecie okreslonego klawisza lub kombinacji klawiszy. Janet? Glowni producenci ukladow BIOS okreslili standardowe kombinacje klawiszy umozliwiajace otwarcie programu BIOS Setup: AMI w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Delete.

Phoenix w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz F2. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays? Award w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Delete lub kombinacje Ctrl+Alt+Esc. Janet? Microid Research w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Esc. The Wasteland? Jesli jednak system nie bedzie reagowal na zaden z wymienionych klawiszy, wtedy, w celu znalezienia wlasciwych klawiszy lub ich kombinacji, moze okazac sie konieczne skontaktowanie sie z producentem lub zajrzenie do dokumentacji dolaczonej do komputera. Janet Moyles Play? Ponizej wymieniono niektore systemy, w ktorych wykorzystuje sie niestandardowe klawisze: IBM Aptiva/Valuepoint lub Thinkpad w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST lub w momencie uruchamiania komputera nacisnij klawisz F1. Essay On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Komputery przenosne firmy Toshiba w momencie uruchamiania komputera nacisnij klawisz Esc, a nastepnie po wyswietleniu odpowiedniego komunikatu klawisz F1. Janet Moyles Spiral? Starsze wersje BIOS-u firmy Phoenix uruchom system w trybie awaryjnym, a nastepnie nacisnij kombinacje klawiszy Ctrl+Alt+Esc lub Ctrl+Alt+S. Eliot? Compaq w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz F10.

Po wyswietleniu glownego okna programu BIOS Setup zazwyczaj powinno byc dostepne glowne menu, ktore pozwala na wybranie innych menu dodatkowych powodujacych otwarcie roznych sekcji lub ekranow. Play Spiral? Jako przykladem posluzymy sie plyta glowna Intel DB815EEA i dokonamy przegladu wszystkich menu umozliwiajacych konfiguracje tej plyty. Achieving Status? Chociaz inne plyty glowne moga byc wyposazone w troche inny zestaw ustawien, to moyles play spiral jednak w wiekszosci przypadkow sa one podobne. American Revolution Battle? Wiekszosc nowszych wersji BIOS-u po uruchomieniu programu BIOS Setup w gornej czesci ekranu wyswietla pasek menu sluzacy do nawigacji pomiedzy roznymi zestawami menu podstawowych. Janet Moyles Play? Musze zaznaczyc ze w roznych wersjach BIOS-u rozne menu i opcje moga miec rozne nazwy. With Greater Drugs? Wiec radze abyscie szukali waszych opcji pod roznymi nazwami i w roznych menu. Janet Play Spiral? Standardowe menu programu BIOS Setup. Pozwala okreslic czestotliwosc magistrali procesora i skasowac hasla dostepu do konfiguracji. The Wasteland? Menu dostepne jest tylko w trybie Configure ustawianym za pomoca zworki umieszczonej na plycie glownej. Janet Play? Pozwala przydzielic zasoby komponentom systemowym.

Pozwala okreslic zaawansowane funkcje chipsetu. Eliot The Wasteland? Pozwala ustawic hasla i opcje zabezpieczen. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Pozwala zdefiniowac funkcje zwiazane z zarzadzaniem energia. Fire Of The? Pozwala okreslic opcje inicjalizacji i funkcje dotyczace zasilania. Janet Play Spiral? Zapisuje lub wycofuje zmiany ustawien programu Setup.

Wybranie dowolnego z wymienionych menu spowoduje przejscie do innego menu oferujacego szczegolowe ustawienia. L'Engle? Maintenance jest szczegolnym menu umozliwiajacym ustawienie czestotliwosci magistrali procesora oraz skasowanie hasel programu Setup. Janet Moyles Play? Ustawienia standardowego menu Maintenance. Pozwala okreslic czestotliwosc magistrali procesora (w MHz lub GHz). Status And Change? W oknie wyswietlane sa tylko czestotliwosci obslugiwane przez procesor zainstalowany na plycie glownej lacznie z czestotliwoscia maksymalna. Janet? Clear All Passwords.

Pozwala usunac hasla uzytkownika i administratora. Achieving And Change Essay? Pozwala usunac dane autoryzujace uslugi Wired for janet moyles spiral, Management Boot Integrity Service (BiS). Abusive At A? Opcje definiowane przez uzytkownika. Wyswietla menu Extended Configuration Submenu. Spiral? Wyswietla informacje na temat procesora. American? CPU Microcode Update Revision.

Wyswietla wersje aktualizacji mikrokodu procesora. Moyles? CPU Stepping Signature. The Wasteland? Wyswietla wersje procesora (ang. Moyles? stepping). Essay On Change: The Seed? Przy uzyciu menu Main mozna ustawic zegar systemowy oraz wprowadzic parametry dysku twardego i stacji dyskietek, jak rowniez podstawowy typ karty graficznej. Janet Spiral? Nowsze wersje BIOS-u sa wyposazone w bardziej zlozony program konfiguracyjny skladajacy sie z wiekszej liczby menu. American Revolution? Z tego tez powodu menu Main w porownaniu ze starszymi systemami jest w znacznym stopniu rozbudowane.

W nowszych systemach menu Main zawiera dane dotyczace wersji BIOS-u, typu i szybkosci procesora, pojemnosci pamieci oraz informuje, czy pamiec operacyjna lub podreczna wykorzystuja funkcje kodu korekcji bledow ECC. Janet Play? Menu Main moze rowniez posluzyc do ustawienia daty i czasu systemowego. With At A Greater Drugs Or Alcohol?? Ustawienia standardowego Menu Main. Moyles Spiral? Wyswietla wersje BIOS-u. Lord Flies? Wyswietla typ procesora. Moyles? Wyswietla czestotliwosc procesora.

System Bus Freauency. Madeleine A Wrinkle In Time Essays? Wyswietla czestotliwosc magistrali systemowej. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Wyswietla pojemnosc pamieci podrecznej L2 oraz jej zgodnosc z funkcja kodu korekcji bledow ECC. Eliot? Wyswietla calkowita pojemnosc pamieci RAM zainstalowanej na plycie glownej. Janet Spiral? Memory Bank 0 Memory Bank 1 Memory Bank 2. Wyswietla pojemnosc i typ pamieci DIMM zainstalowanej w kazdym banku. With Risk? English (domyslny), Deutch, Espanol. Janet Moyles? Pozwala wybrac domyslny jezyk wykorzystywany przez BIOS.

Processor Serial Number. On Change:? Wlacza i wylacza funkcje zwiazana z numerem seryjnym procesora (dostepna tylko w przypadku procesora Pentium III). Moyles? Hour, minute, second. A Wrinkle Essays? Pozwala okreslic aktualny czas. Janet Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic aktualna date. Designer Shopping Trolley? Pozwala okreslic zgodnosc z funkcja ECC.

L2 cache ECC Support. Play Spiral? Po wlaczeniu dostepna jest kontrola bledow wystepujacych przy dostepie do danych zawartych w pamieci Cache L2. On Change:? Opcja nie jest dostepna w przypadku procesorow, ktore zawsze maja aktywna funkcje ECC pamieci podrecznej L2. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave. Fire Of The? Po wybraniu tego ustawienia dla kazdego urzadzenia dostepne sa dodatkowe opcje. Menu zawierajace opcje dotyczace stacji dyskietek. Play Spiral? Opcja do zignorowania. When Did The New Deal? Okresla tryb graficzny, ale dotyczy to janet moyles play kart graficznych montowanych w komputerach w latach 80-tych zeszlego wieku.

All, But Keyboard. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays? All, But Diskette. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? All, But Disk/Key. Opcja definiujaca reakcje BIOS-u na wystapienie okreslonego problemu wykrytego podczas testow wstepnych (testow POST). American Revolution First Battle? All Errors - powoduje zatrzymanie uruchamiania komputera, gdy test POST sygnalizuje blad. Janet Play? Mozliwe sytuacje bedace przyczyna zatrzymania procesu bootowania to: brak stacji dyskietek (mimo iz jest ona zadeklarowana w ustawieniach BIOS-u), brak klawiatury czy np. With Abusive At A Greater Risk Of Abusing? rozladowana bateria podtrzymujaca pamiec ukladu CMOS, w ktorym przechowywane sa ustawienia BIOS-u (w tym ostatnim przypadku najczesciej zobaczymy komunikat CMOS Checksum error), albo. Moyles Play? atak wirusa modyfikujacego zawartosc BIOS-u (choc w tym przypadku najczesciej w ogole nie dochodzi do uruchomienia sie chocby testow POST). The Wasteland? No Errors - przeciwienstwo wyzej opisanego parametru.

BIOS bedzie kontynuowal procedure uruchamiania komputera bez wzgledu na napotkane w tescie POST bledy. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Oczywiscie z wylaczeniem takich, ktore w ogole uniemozliwiaja dzialania komputera. Lord Flies? All, But Keyboard - BIOS zatrzyma proces bootowania, jesli napotka bledy testu POST, z wyjatkiem sytuacji, gdy do komputera nie bedzie podpieta klawiatura. Moyles Play Spiral? All, But Diskette - parametr analogiczny do powyzszego, tym razem ignorowany jestbrak stacji dyskietek (mimo iz jest ona zadeklarowana w BIOS-ie). Designer Trolley? All, But Disk/Key - parametr stanowiacy polaczenie dwoch powyzszych; ignorowanymi bledami sa: brak klawiatury i stacji dyskietek. IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave.

IDE HDD Auto-Detection. Play Spiral? Wywolanie tej opcji spowoduje automatyczne wykrycie urzadzenia podlaczonego do kontrolera IDE/ATA. Of Evolution? Najczesciej dyski czy napedy CD DVD wykrywane sa automatycznie juz wczesniej - BIOS sprawdza kontroler IDE/ATA pod katem obecnosci podlaczonych do niego urzadzen podczas uruchamiania komputera. Moyles Play Spiral? Nie ma wiec potrzeby uzywania tej opcji. Essay On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Nazwa tej opcji zalezy do tego, ktora linie wybralismy z glownego ekranu grupy Main.

Jezeli wybralismy linie wlasciwa dla urzadzenia podrzednego (Slave) podlaczonego do pierwszego kanalu interfejsu ramach tej opcji dostepne sa trzy parametry: None, Auto (domyslny) oraz Manual. Janet? Pierwszy spowoduje wylaczenie urzadzenia podlaczonego do kontrolera (nie bedzie ono widoczne w BIOS-ie i w systemach operacyjnych korzystajacych z BIOS-u, ale moze byc widoczne w systemach operacyjnych samodzielnie obslugujacych sprzet). Drugi okresla, ze BIOS samodzielnie dokonuje oceny parametrow urzadzenia i uaktywnia jego obsluge, natomiast trzeci umozliwia reczna zmiane parametrow np. Essay On Change:? dysku twardego w zaleznosci od wybranego trybu dostepu. Moyles? Opcja okresla sposob adresowania dysku twardego. Fire Flies? Zalecanym ustawieniem jest pozostawienie domyslnego parametru Auto, dzieki czemu BIOS automatycznie okresla sposob adresowania w oparciu o odczytane informacje z firmware (oprogramowania wewnetrznego) dysku. Moyles Play Spiral? Inne parametry to: CHS - ustawia adresowanie typu cylinder-glowica-sektor (z ang. Designer Shopping? Cylinder-Head-Sector).

Ten typ adresowania uzywany byl w dyskach twardych o pojemnosci ponizej 504 MB. Play? I nalezy go stosowac tylko dla takich zabytkow. On Change:? Dyski o wiekszej pojemnosci nie moga byc adresowane ta metoda (bedzie wykazywana niewlasciwa pojemnosc lub urzadzenie w ogole nie bedzie dzialac). Janet Play? LBA - oznacza Logical Block Addressing, czyli adresowanie, w ktorym sektory dysku sa uporzadkowane numerycznie, bez wzgledu na numer cylindra czy inne parametry majace znaczenie w metodzie CHS. Eliot? Aktualnie dyski twarde sa wlasnie adresowane za pomoca LBA. Dla nowszych dyskow nie ma znaczenia, czy wybierzemy parametr LBA, czy pozostaniemy przy parametrze Auto.

Oczywiscie uzycie Auto jest po prostu wygodniejsze. Moyles? Large - metoda przejsciowa miedzy CHS a likwidujacym ograniczenia pojemnosci LBA. Essay On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Stanowila swego czasu proteze umozliwiajaca korzystanie z dyskow o pojemnosciach wiekszych niz 504 MB. Janet? Obecnie stanowi anachronizm i nie nalezy jej uzywac. L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Capacity - informacja o wykrytej objetosci dysku (w napedach CD/DVD wartosc tego parametru wynosi 0). Moyles Play Spiral? Cylinder, Head, Precomp, Landing Zone, Sector - te opcje maja znaczenie tylko dla bardzo starych dyskow (o pojemnosci mniejszej niz 504 MB). Eliot The Wasteland? Wartosci tu wyswietlane sa konfigurowalne tylko wtedy, gdy parametrem opcji IDE Kanal/ Priorytet bedzie Manual, a tryb dostepu jest ustawiony na CHS. Moyles Spiral? Jezeli faktycznie mamy do czynienia z zabytkowym dyskiem, wlasciwe wartosci znajdziemy na nalepce znamionowej na obudowie dysku. Are Adolescents Abusive Parents Drugs Or Alcohol?? Sluza okresleniu typu stacji dyskietek, jaka mamy w komputerze (w praktyce: 1.44M, 3.5 in.). Opcje te sa uzyteczne jedynie gdy w nasze rece trafi naprawde archaiczne urzadzenie (np. Janet Spiral? stacja dyskietek 5,25 cala o pojemnosci 360 kB) lub nietypowe (np. Did The New Deal End? 3,5-calowe stacje dyskietek o pojemnosci 2,88 MB).

Oczywiscie jezeli nie mamy dwoch stacji dyskietek, dla opcji Drive B ustawiamy parametr None. Janet? Swap Floppy Drive. Eliot? Opcja uzyteczna (i dostepna), jezeli komputer wyposazony jest w dwie stacje dyskietek. Janet? Parametr Enabled (wlaczony) powoduje, ze dotychczasowa stacja oznaczona litera A: bedzie stacja B:, a stacja B: stacja A:. When New Deal End? Parametr Disabled (wylaczony) przywraca pierwotna konfiguracje. Janet? Funkcja ta moze nie dzialac w systemie Windows NT 4.0 bez zainstalowanego dodatku Service Pack 4 dla Windows NT. Revolution Battle? Nie nalezy jej tez uzywac podczas instalacji Windows NT 4.0. Janet Moyles? Boot Up Floppy Seek.

Wlaczenie tej opcji (Enabled) powoduje, ze BIOS podczas uruchamiania komputera i przeprowadzania testow wstepnych (tzw. L'Engle In Time Essays? test POST) poszukuje stacji dyskietek i po jej znalezieniu uaktywnia ja na krotka chwile (co objawia sie zapaleniem diody kontrolnej stacji dyskietek). Moyles Spiral? Opcja bedaca anachronizmem z czasow, gdy komputery PC musialy miec stacje dyskietek. American First Battle? Obecnie zalecanym ustawieniem przyspieszajacym proces uruchamiania jest Disabled (wylaczony). Janet Play Spiral? Menu Advanced oferuje zaawansowane opcje zwiazane z konfiguracja chipsetu plyty glownej. Fire Lord? Ta czesc programu BIOS Setup jest scisle zalezna od wykorzystywanego typu chipsetu. Spiral? Obecnie na rynku dostepnych jest wiele chipsetow, z ktorych kazdy charakteryzuje sie wlasnym niepowtarzalnym zestawem ustawien. Czesc programu zwiazana z konfiguracja chipsetu pozwala uzytkownikowi na dostosowanie jej do wlasnych potrzeb i zmiane niektorych parametrow jego pracy. Essay On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Typowe ustawienia menu Advanced. Janet Play? Jesli pojawi sie opcja Used, oznacza to, ze dla pozycji Extended Configuration znajdujacej sie w menu Maintenance zostala wybrana wartosc User-defined.

Pozwala ustawic priorytet przerwan poszczegolnych gniazd PCI. Risk Drugs Or Alcohol?? Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu PCI Configuration. Play Spiral? Boot Settings Configuration. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays? Sluzy do konfiguracji opcji Numlock i Plug and moyles play spiral Play oraz modyfikacji danych konfiguracyjnych. Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Boot Settings Configuration. Magnet Essay? Sluzy do konfiguracji portow urzadzen peryferyjnych. Janet Play Spiral? Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Peripheral Configuration. Eliot? Pozwala okreslic typ podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Moyles? Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Diskette Configuration. Fire Flies? Sluzy do konfiguracji dziennika zdarzen.

Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Event Log Configuration. Janet Play Spiral? Sluzy do konfiguracji ustawien zwiazanych z karta graficzna. Essays? Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Video Configuration. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic, czy jest stosowany system operacyjny zgodny z technologia Plug and eliot the wasteland Play. Moyles? Opcja No przekazuje do BIOS-u zadanie konfiguracji wszystkich urzadzen. Opcja Yes umozliwia systemowi operacyjnemu skonfigurowanie urzadzen PnP.

W przypadku uzycia systemu obslugujacego funkcje Plug and eliot Play ustawienie nie jest wymagane. Janet Moyles? Reset Configuration Data. Essay The Seed Of Evolution? Usuwa dane konfiguracji Plug and janet moyles play Play BIOS-u. On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Zmiana jest uwzgledniana przy najblizszej inicjalizacji systemu. Play? Pozwala okreslic status klawisza Num Lock znajdujacego sie na klawiaturze numerycznej. Sluzy do konfiguracji blokow pamieci i przerwan starszych urzadzen ISA. Lord Of The? Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Resource Configuration. Moyles Spiral? Advanced BIOS FEATURES. Are Adolescents Risk Of Abusing Drugs? Menu zawiera opcje dotyczace obslugi komponentow komputera przez BIOS. Play Spiral? Menu PCI Configuration umozliwia ustawienie wartosci przerwan przypisywanych kartom zainstalowanym w gniazdach magistrali PCI.

Jesli nie ma potrzeby przypisania okreslonym kartom PCI konkretnych wartosci przerwan IRQ, wtedy domyslna wartosc to end AUTO. Janet Moyles Spiral? PCI Slot 1 IRQ Priority. Did The New Deal End? Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. Moyles Play Spiral? PCI Slot 2 IRQ Priority. Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. Fire Lord Of The Flies? PCI Slot 3 IRQ Priority. Janet Spiral? Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. Designer? Wartosci priorytetu przerwan IRQ dla gniazda PCI 3 i 5 sa wspolne, natomiast inne opcje ustawione dla gniazda PCI 3 obowiazuja rowniez dla gniazda PCI 5. Janet Moyles? PCI Slot 4 IRQ Priority. Eliot? Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan.

PCI Slot 5 IRQ Priority. Janet Moyles? Zawsze ma ustawiona wartosc Auto (inne wartosci sa identyczne jak w przypadku gniazda PCI 3). Pozwala okreslic, czy jest stosowany system operacyjny zgodny z technologia Plug and with abusive parents at a of abusing or alcohol? Play. Janet Spiral? Opcja No przekazuje do BIOS-u zadanie konfiguracji wszystkich urzadzen. When Did The New Deal End? Wartosc No nalezy ustawic w przypadku uzycia systemu operacyjnego obslugujacego funkcje PnP. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Opcja Yes umozliwia systemowi operacyjnemu skonfigurowanie urzadzen PnP. Eliot? Reset Config Data. Moyles Spiral? Usuwa dane konfiguracji PnP/pCI BIOS-u zapisanej w ukladzie pamieci Flash.

Zmiana jest uwzgledniana podczas najblizszej inicjalizacji systemu. The Wasteland? Pozwala okreslic status klawisza Num Lock znajdujacego sie na klawiaturze numerycznej. Dodatkowe opcje zaawansowane. Janet? Pozwala na wybranie ustawionych przez producenta chipsetu optymalnych wartosci jego parametrow. L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Po ustawieniu wartosci Disabled parametry chipsetu z powrotem przyjmuja wartosci konfiguracji zapisanej w pamieci CMOS. Janet Moyles Play? Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled wiele widocznych pol jest niedostepnych. Status Essay? EDO DRAM Speed Selection.

Wartosc ustawiona w tym polu musi odpowiadac szybkosci pamieci EDO DRAM zainstalowanej w komputerze. Play Spiral? Ustawienie okresla czas dostepu pamieci, dlatego tez im nizsza jego wartosc, tym wyzsza wydajnosc systemu. On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? SDRAM RAS-to-CAS Delay. Janet Moyles Spiral? Pola pozwalaja na kontrolowanie liczby cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy wykonaniem operacji aktywacji wiersza i operacji odczytu lub zapisu. L'Engle A Wrinkle? SDRAM RAS Precharge Time. Parametr Precharge Time okresla liczbe cykli wymaganych przez adresowanie wierszy pamieci (RAS) do nagromadzenia ladunku przed odswiezeniem modulu DRAM. Moyles Spiral? Jesli okreslony czas jest niewystarczajacy, wtedy odswiezanie moze nie zostac zakonczone prawidlowo, wskutek czego z pamieci DRAM moga zniknac dane. The Wasteland? SDRAM CAS Latency Time. Janet Play Spiral? Po zainstalowaniu synchronicznej pamieci DRAM (SDRAM) istnieje mozliwosc zmiany liczby cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy kolejnymi operacjami odczytu oraz w momencie, gdy kontroler wczytuje dane z modulow SDRAM. Are Adolescents With Parents Greater Risk Of Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol?? SDRAM Precharge Control.

Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled wszystkie cykle procesora zwiazane z pamiecia SDRAM powoduja wykonanie na jej interfejsie instrukcji All Banks Precharge. Play? DRAM Data Integrity Mode. Achieving Status Essay? W zaleznosci od typu zainstalowanej pamieci DRAM nalezy ustawic wartosc Non-ECC lub ECC. Moyles Spiral? Wartosc ECC aktywuje funkcje jednobitowej korekcji bledow oraz wielobitowej detekcji bledow, ktore powoduja nieznaczny spadek wydajnosci komputera. Did The New Deal? DRAM Timing Selectable. Reguluje sposob konfiguracji pamieci RAM. Janet Spiral? Parametr By SPD oznacza, ze BIOS bedzie pobieral dane dotyczace pamieci bezposrednio z modulow pamieci (z ukladu SPD - Serial Presence Data) -jest to Essay The Seed zdecydowanie najbezpieczniejsze ustawienie, natomiast ustawienie Manual umozliwia wprowadzenie modyfikacji w czterech opisanych nizej opcjach, czyli cos dla overclockerow. Janet Play Spiral? CAS Latency Time. Designer Shopping Trolley? Ustawia czas opoznienia sygnalu adresujacego kolumne komorek pamieci (CAS - Column Address Strobe).

Wartosc opoznienia zalezy od timingu pamieci i od mozliwosci samych ukladow. Spiral? Najbardziej wydajne ustawienie to american revolution first najmniejsza wartosc opoznienia, jednak moze ono nie zadzialac modulow DRAM sredniej jakosci. Moyles? Active to when did the new deal end Precharge Delay. Moyles Play? Okresla opoznienie miedzy aktywnoscia a resetowaniem komorek pamieci, ponownie im mniejsza wartosc, tym lepiej, jednak nie zadziala to with abusive at a drugs or alcohol? w kazdym przypadku [8/7/6/5]. DRAM RAS# to moyles play CAS# Delay. Are Adolescents With Abusive At A Risk Drugs Or Alcohol?? Definiuje opoznienie pomiedzy sygnalem adresujacym kolumny i wiersze komorek pamieci. Play? Mniejsza wartosc oznacza wieksza wydajnosc. Essay On Change:? DRAM RAS# Precharge. Moyles Play? Okresla czas przygotowania komorek pamieci na dzialanie. Revolution Battle? Wartosc mniejsza oznacza lepsza wydajnosc, ale zbyt maly czas zaowocuje bledami i w rezultacie zawieszeniem sie komputera (zjawisko powszechnie wystepujace na komputerach overclockerow).

System BIOS Cacheable. Play? Pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci systemowego ukladu BIOS ROM znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu F0000h FFFFFh, co polepsza wydajnosc komputera. Lord Of The? Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad systemowy. Play Spiral? Video BIOS Cacheable. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle? Pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci ukladu BIOS ROM karty graficznej znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu C0000h - C7FFFh, co polepsza jej wydajnosc. Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad systemowy. Moyles Spiral? Video RAM Cacheable (Video Memory Cache Mode) Ustawienie wartosci Enabled pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci pamieci RAM karty graficznej znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu A0000h - AFFFFh, co polepsza jej wydajnosc.

Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad dostepu do pamieci. Madeleine? W niektorych systemach ustawieniu Enabled odpowiada tryb USWC (ang. Janet Spiral? Uncacheable Speculative Write-Combining). Revolution Battle? 8/16 Bit I/O Recovery Time. Spiral? Mechanizm regeneracji portow I/O dodaje cykle zegara magistrali do cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy portami I/O magistrali PCI i magistrali ISA. Flies? Dodatkowe opoznienie wynika stad, ze magistrala PCI jest znacznie szybsza od magistrali ISA. Moyles Spiral? Memory Hole at when 15M-I6M. Pozostawia 1 MB pustego obszaru pamieci RAM pomiedzy 15 i 16 megabajtem. Janet? Starsze aplikacje czasami nie dzialaja prawidlowo, gdy w systemie jest pamiec o pojemnosci 16 MB lub wiekszej. End? W takim przypadku aktywacja tego ustawienia pomaga rozwiazac problem. Moyles? Standardowo jest ono wylaczone.

Delay Prior to eliot Thermal. Moyles? Funkcja wlasciwa tylko dla procesorow Pentium 4, posiadajacych mechanizm ochrony termicznej, polegajacy na tym, ze podczas przegrzania (przekroczenia okreslonej temperatury) procesor zwalnia prace (w miejsce niektorych cykli roboczych wprowadzane sa cykle puste, w czasie ktorych procesor nie pracuje i chlodzi sie - funkcja ta nosi nazwe throttlingu). Madeleine In Time? Czas ustawiany w tej opcji okresla, po ilu minutach automatyczna ochrona termiczna ma byc aktywowana. Dzieki tej funkcji procesor nie jest spowalniany podczas krotkotrwalych przeciazen, ktore w zadnym razie (o ile sa spowodowane wymogami obliczeniowymi) nie powoduja jego uszkodzenia. Moyles Spiral? Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled funkcja Passive Release pozwala na dostep do mostka laczacego procesor z magistrala PCI.

Jesli funkcja jest wylaczona, wtedy kontroler zezwala na dostep do lokalnej pamieci DRAM tylko urzadzeniom nadrzednym magistrali PCI. Essay On Change:? Chipset zawiera 32-bitowy zintegrowany bufor zapisujacy majacy za zadanie obslugiwanie cykli opozniajacych transakcje. Moyles Play? Aby wlaczyc zgodnosc ze specyfikacja PCI 2.1, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. With Greater? AGP Aperture Size (MB) Pozwala okreslic pojemnosc pamieci przeznaczonej dla karty AGP (ang. Janet Moyles Spiral? accelerated graphics port). Eliot? Jest to moyles spiral czesc przestrzeni adresowej pamieci wykorzystywanej przez magistrale PCI dedykowanej przestrzeni adresowej karty graficznej AGP. Magnet And Change? Cykle magistrali, ktore odwoluja sie do dedykowanego zakresu, sa przekierowywane do magistrali AGP bez koniecznosci translacji. Play? CPU Warning Temperature. With Risk Or Alcohol?? W przypadku, gdy komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, ustawienie to janet moyles pozwala okreslic maksymalna i minimalna temperature procesora. Jesli wartosc temperatury zostanie przekroczona, wtedy zostanie wlaczony mechanizm ostrzegawczy zaimplementowany w systemie. New Deal End? Current CPU Temperature. Janet Moyles Spiral? Jesli komputer dysponuje systemem monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna temperature procesora.

W przypadku, gdy komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, ustawienie to fire of the flies pozwala okreslic maksymalna i minimalna temperature, przy ktorej nastapi jego wylaczenie. Janet Moyles Play? Jesli wartosc temperatury zostanie przekroczona, nastapi wylaczenie komputera. Essays? CPUFAN Turn On IN Win98. Janet Spiral? Jesli uzywasz systemu Windows 98 obslugujacego funkcje ACPI, wtedy po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled dysponujesz w trakcie pracy systemu mozliwoscia zmiany parametrow zwiazanych z chlodzeniem. Achieving Magnet And Change? W zaleznosci od podjetej decyzji dotyczacej takich parametrow jak aktywnosc procesora, zuzycie energii przez baterie i dopuszczalny poziom glosnosci, uzytkownik moze wylaczyc lub wlaczyc wentylator procesora. Janet Play Spiral? Current System Temperature. End? Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna temperature panujaca w komputerze. Janet Moyles? Current CPUFAN 1/2/3 Speed.

Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna ilosc obrotow maksymalnie trzech wentylatorow. American First? Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pola wyswietlaja aktualne wartosci napiecia maksymalnie siedmiu zrodel zasilania. Janet Moyles? W sytuacji, gdy generator zegara systemowego pulsuje, wartosci maksymalne impulsu generuja nadmierna wartosc EMI. Shopping Trolley? Wlaczenie modulacji lagodzacej widmo impulsu powoduje obnizenie wartosci maksymalnych, co objawia sie zmiana ksztaltu krzywej z ostrej na plaska, a tym samym nastepuje redukcja wartosci EMI. Janet Play Spiral? W niektorych przypadkach uzyskane korzysci moga zostac pomniejszone przez problemy zwiazane z urzadzeniami opierajacymi sie na precyzyjnym taktowaniu, takimi jak karty SCSI. End? PCI/VGA Palette Snoop. Pozwala kartom graficznym na odczytywanie danych z pamieci RAM.

Jesli w instrukcji instalacji karty graficznej nie zawarto wymogu aktywacji tej opcji, wtedy nalezy ustawic jej standardowa wartosc Disabled. Janet Moyles? Okresla mnoznik procesora. Trolley? Opcja ta jest dostepna tylko wtedy, gdy mnoznik nie zostal zablokowany przez producenta procesora. Moyles Play? CPU HOST Frequency (MHz) Okresla podstawowa czestotliwosc pracy magistrali FSB. Shopping? Finalna czestotliwosc procesora jest iloczynem tej wartosci i mnoznika. Janet Play Spiral? Okresla stosunek czestotliwosci taktowania pamieci, do magistrali procesora. Essay? DDD Speed (Strobe/Sec) Opcja informacyjna, wyswietlajaca informacje o szybkosci taktowania pamieci. Play? AGP/pCI Speed Setting. When Did The New Deal? Okresla czestotliwosc pracy AGP, PCI. Moyles Play? Informacja o szybkosci taktowania szyny AGP.

Informacja o szybkosci taktowania magistrali AGP. Shopping Trolley? Default CPU Voltage (Volt) Informacyjna, wyswietla domyslne napiecie zasilania procesora. Umozliwia zmiane napiecia zasilania procesora. Moyles Spiral? Uwaga! Podwyzszenie napiecia moze uszkodzic procesor. Essay The Seed Of Evolution? Umozliwia zmiane napiecia zasilania szyny AGP. Spiral? Opcja ryzykowna. The Wasteland? Kolejna overclockerska funkcja umozliwiajaca wybor napiecia zasilajacego pamieci. Janet Moyles Play? Podwyzszenie (minimalne!) celem zwiekszenia wydajnosci ma sens jedynie wtedy, gdy dysponujemy dobrymi ukladami z wbudowanym chlodzeniem. Essay On Change: The Seed Of Evolution? Menu Peripheral Configuration sluzy do konfigurowania urzadzen zintegrowanych z plyta glowna, takich jak porty szeregowe, rownolegle, USB i wbudowane karty dzwiekowe. Janet? Standardowe menu Peripheral Configuration.

Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu szeregowego A. Trolley? Adres o wartosci 3F8h oraz przerwanie 1RQ4 sa automatycznie przydzielane pierwszemu wolnemu portowi COM (zazwyczaj COM 1). Play? Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Okresla adres bazowy I/O portu szeregowego A. Moyles Play? IRQ3 IRQ 4 (domyslnie) Okresla przerwanie portu szeregowego A. Madeleine A Wrinkle In Time? Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu szeregowego B. Janet Spiral? Adres o wartosci 2F8h oraz przerwanie IRQ3 sa automatycznie przydzielane pierwszemu wolnemu portowi COM (zazwyczaj COM 2). Lord? Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Jesli okreslony adres zostanie przypisany do portu szeregowego, wtedy nie bedzie widoczny na liscie adresow udostepnianych drugiemu portowi. Of Evolution? Normal (domyslnie) IrDA-SIR ASK_IR.

Okresla tryb pracy portu szeregowego B jako normalny (COM 2) lub pelniacy role portu podczerwieni. Moyles Play? Okresla adres bazowy I/O portu szeregowego B. Revolution First? Okresla przerwanie portu szeregowego B. Play? Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu rownoleglego. Adres o wartosci 378h oraz przerwanie IRQ7 sa automatycznie przydzielane portowi LPT1. Are Adolescents At A Risk Drugs Or Alcohol?? Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. Janet Play? Output Only Bidirectional (domyslnie) EPP ECP. When Did The? Pozwala na ustawienie trybu pracy portu rownoleglego. Play? Opcja Output Only dziala tylko w systemach kompatybilnych z AT. Did The? Tryb Bidirectional (dwukierunkowy) dziala wylacznie w systemach kompatybilnych z PS/2. Janet Moyles? EPP (ang.

Extended Parallel Port) oraz ECP (ang. The Seed Of Evolution? Enhanced Capabilities Port) sa dwukierunkowymi trybami o duzej szybkosci. Moyles Spiral? Tryby EPP i ECP sa kompatybilne ze standardem IEEE-1284, dlatego tez wymagaja zastosowania zgodnego z nim kabla drukarki. Battle? Okresla adres bazowy l/O portu rownoleglego. Moyles Play Spiral? IRQ 5 JRQ 7 (domyslnie) Okresla przerwanie portu rownoleglego.

DMA 1 DMA 3 (domyslnie) Okresla kanal DMA dla portu rownoleglego (dostepne tylko po ustawieniu trybu ECP). Shopping? Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowana karte dzwiekowa. Janet Play Spiral? Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowana karte sieciowa LAN. Magnet? Legacy USB Support. Janet Moyles? Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza obsluge starszych urzadzen USB. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Funkcja Legacy USB Support umozliwia uzycie klawiatury lub myszy USB, nawet wtedy, gdy system operacyjny nie dysponuje odpowiednimi sterownikami. Moyles Spiral? Menu IDE Configuration sluzy do konfiguracji urzadzen IDE takich jak dyski twarde, napedy CD-ROM, napedy LS-120 (SuperDisk), streamery itp.

Disabled Primary Secondary Both (domyslnie) Pozwala uaktywnic zintegrowany kontroler IDE. Lord Flies? Opcja Primary wlacza tylko podstawowy kontroler IDE (Primary IDE), natomiast opcja Secondary tylko dodatkowy kontroler (Secondary IDE). Moyles Play Spiral? Opcja Both uaktywnia oba kontrolery IDE. The Seed? Hard Disk Pre-Delay. Disabled (domyslnie) 3 Seconds 6 Seconds 9 Seconds 12 Seconds 15 Seconds 21 Seconds 30 Seconds. Janet Moyles Spiral? Pozwala wybrac jedna z wartosci opoznienia.

Primary IDE Master. American? Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Janet Play? Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Primary IDE Master. Fire Flies? Primary IDE Slave. Janet Moyles Play? Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Primary IDE Slave. American Revolution Battle? Secondary IDE Master. Janet Spiral? Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Are Adolescents Abusive Risk? Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Secondary IDE Master. Janet? Secondary IDE Slave. Madeleine? Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE.

Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Secondary IDE Slave. Janet Moyles Spiral? IDE HDD Block Mode. American First Battle? Wlacza transfer blokowy w dyskach twardych. Play Spiral? Ustawienie zalecane (Enabled). Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle? On-Chip Primary/Secondary PCI IDE. Janet Moyles Play? Wlacza lub wylacza pierwszy/drugi kanal kontrolera IDE ATA. Status And Change? Zalecane oczywiscie wlaczenie (Enabled).

IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave PIO/UDMA. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Opcje okreslajace sposob pracy trybow PIO i UDMA. Eliot? Najlepszym rozwiazaniem jest pozostawienie tych opcji na domyslnym, automatycznym ustawieniu. Janet Spiral? On-Chip Serial ATA. Lord? Serial ATA Port0/port1 Mode. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Okresla tryb pracy wbudowanego w plyte kontrolera Serial ATA.

Dostepne sa nastepujace parametry: Auto - parametr domyslny, BIOS automatycznie ustawia tryb pracy kontrolera. Revolution Battle? Disabled - wylacza kontroler Serial ATA. Spiral? Combined Mode - tzw. Did The End? tryb kombinowany, w ktorym kontrolery ATA i SATA dzialaja jak jedno urzadzenie. Moyles Play? W tym trybie mozna korzystac z maksymalnie czterech dyskow lub innych urzadzen (po dwa urzadzenia na kanal, tak jak to on Change: The Seed jest w ATA). Dyski SATA udaja dyski podlaczone do kontrolera ATA. Janet Play Spiral? Enhanced Mode - w tym trybie kontrolery ATA i SATA pracuja niezaleznie; umozliwia on eliot podlaczenie najwiekszej liczby urzadzen (dyskow). Moyles Play Spiral? Serial ATA Port0/port1 Mode - okresla tryb pracy dysku podlaczonego do kontrolera SATA. Essay On Change: Of Evolution? Dostepne parametry zaleza od ustawionego trybu pracy samego kontrolera SATA.

Przykladowo w trybie kombinowanym dysk SATA mozemy ustawic jako master lub slave dla kazdego z dwoch dostepnych kanalow. Typowe ustawienia menu IDE Drive. Moyles Play Spiral? None ATAPI Removable Other ATAPI CD-ROM User IDE Removable Auto (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic typ urzadzen IDE. Eliot The Wasteland? Wartosc Auto powoduje automatyczne okreslenie wartosci zwiazanych z trybem przesylania danych. Janet? Inne opcje sa zalezne od podlaczonego urzadzenia. Lord Of The? Wyswietla maksymalna pojemnosc dysku. Janet Moyles? LBA Mode Control. Wlacza lub wylacza tryb LBA.

Disabled 2 Sectors 4 Sectors 8 Sectors 16 Sectors (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic ilosc sektorow przypadajacych na blok przy przesylaniu danych z dysku do pamieci. Are Adolescents With Parents At A Greater Risk? Aby ustawic wartosci optymalne, nalezy zapoznac sie ze specyfikacja dysku. Moyles Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic tryb PIO zwiazany z przesylaniem danych z i do dysku. American Revolution First? Disabled (domyslnie) 0 1 2 3 4 5. Pozwala okreslic tryb Ultra DMA zwiazany z przesylaniem danych z i do dysku. Moyles? Wyswietla typ kabla podlaczonego do interfejsu IDE 40-zylowy lub 80-zylowy (urzadzenia Ultra ATA-66/100). Flies? Menu Diskette Configuration umozliwia konfiguracje stacji dyskietek i jej interfejsu. Play? Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowany kontroler stacji dyskietek. A Wrinkle Essays? Pozwala okreslic pojemnosc i fizyczny format dyskietki. Moyles Play? Floppy Write Protect.

Wlacza lub wylacza ochrone przed zapisem dyskietki. New Deal End? Menu Event Logging pozwala na konfiguracje ustawien zwiazanych z rejestracja zdarzen systemu SMBIOS (ang. Janet? System Management BIOS). Are Adolescents With Risk Of Abusing Drugs? SMBIOS zgodny ze standardem DMI umozliwia zarzadzanie komputerami podlaczonymi do sieci. Janet Play? Standard DMI (ang. Shopping Trolley? Desktop Management Interface) jest specjalnym protokolem, ktory moze byc wykorzystany przez aplikacje komunikujace sie z plyta glowna.

Typowe ustawienia menu Event Logging. Janet Spiral? Informuje, czy w dzienniku zdarzen jest jeszcze wolne miejsce. Event log validity. L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays? Informuje, czy zawartosc dziennika zdarzen jest aktualna. Janet Spiral? Umozliwia przegladanie dziennika zdarzen. When Did The New Deal? Clear all event logs. Moyles Play? Ustawienie Yes sprawi, ze przy ponownym uruchomieniu komputera dziennik zdarzen zostanie wyczyszczony. American Revolution First Battle? Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Aktywuje rejestracje zdarzen. Janet Play? Mark events as read.

Oznacza wszystkie zdarzenia jako przeczytane. At A Greater Drugs Or Alcohol?? Menu Video Configuration sluzy do konfiguracji parametrow karty graficznej. Moyles Spiral? Typowe ustawienia menu Video Configuration. Achieving Magnet And Change Essay? Default Primary Video Adapter. Moyles Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic typ karty graficznej, ktora wspolpracuje z monitorem inicjalizowanego systemu. Achieving Magnet Essay? Pozwala podstawowemu kontrolerowi karty graficznej PCI wspoldzielic palete z dodatkowa karta graficzna ISA. Janet Moyles Spiral? AGP Aperture Size. Did The New Deal? Pozwala okreslic rozmiar pamieci RAM wykorzystywanej przez kontroler karty graficznej AGP. Janet Moyles Play? AGP Hardware Detected. Informuje, czy zostala zainstalowana karta graficzna AGP zgodna z trybem x1, x2 lub x4. Of Evolution? Wylacza zintegrowany uklad graficzny.

Menu Resource Configuration jest wykorzystywane do konfiguracji pamieci oraz przydzialu przerwan starszym urzadzeniom wspolpracujacym z magistrala ISA i niekompatybilnym z funkcja PnP zainstalowanym na plycie glownej dysponujacej jednym lub kilkoma gniazdami ISA. Janet Moyles Spiral? Typowe ustawienia menu Resource Configuration. Trolley? C800 CBFF Available. CC00 CFFF Available. Janet Spiral? D000 D3FF Available.

D800 DBFF Available. Essay? DC00 DFFF Available. Play? Przydziela okreslone bloki pamieci gornej starszym. Magnet Status Essay? Przydziela okreslone przerwania starszym urzadzeniom ISA. Moyles Play? Znak * wyswietlony obok przerwania IRQ wskazuje na konflikt. A Wrinkle In Time? DMA n Assigned to. Janet Spiral? W przypadku, gdy zasoby sa ustawiane recznie, wtedy w zaleznosci od typu urzadzenia korzystajacego z przerwania nalezy przydzielic mu kanal DMA nalezacy do jednego z wymienionych typow: Starsze urzadzenia ISA kompatybilne z oryginalna specyfikacja PC AT bus wymagaja przydzielenia okreslonego kanalu DMA. Essay On Change:? Typ przydzielonego kanalu DMA urzadzeniom PCI/ISA zgodnym z technologia Plug and moyles spiral Play zalezy od rodzaju wykorzystywanej magistrali (PCI lub ISA) PCI IRQ Activated by.

Jesli urzadzeniu PCI nie zostanie przydzielone przerwanie wyzwalane zboczem, wtedy nalezy pozostawic wartosc Level. Eliot? PCI IDE IRQ Map to. Janet Play? Pole umozliwia ustawienie mapowania przerwan PCI IDE lub przerwan PC AT (ISA). Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? W zaleznosci od tego, czy komputer posiada na plycie glownej jedno lub dwa zlacza kontrolera PCI IDE, nalezy ustawic wartosci odpowiadajace typowi interfejsu(ow) IDE (PCI lub ISA). Moyles? W przypadku obecnosci kontrolerow IDE korzystajacych ze standardowych przerwan ISA, podstawowemu jest przydzielane przerwanie IRQ14, natomiast dodatkowemu IRQ15. L'Engle A Wrinkle? Primary/Secondary IDE INT# Kazde urzadzenie PCI jest w stanie wykorzystac maksymalnie cztery przerwania: INT# A, INT# B, INT# C oraz INT# D. Moyles Spiral? Domyslnie urzadzeniu jest przydzielane przerwanie INT# A. With Abusive Greater Risk Of Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol?? Jesli urzadzenie PCI nie wymaga przypisania dwoch przerwan, wtedy przydzielanie przerwania INT# B nie ma sensu. Ze wzgledu na to, ze interfejs PCI IDE chipsetu dysponuje dwoma kanalami, wymaga przydzielenia dwoch przerwan. Moyles Play Spiral? Domyslnie w polach INT# podstawowego i dodatkowego kontrolera IDE znajduja sie wartosci wymagane przez dwukanalowy interfejs PCI IDE, przy czym kanal podstawowy posiada przerwanie o nizszej wartosci niz kanal dodatkowy. Fire Lord Of The? Nalezy zauwazyc, ze wszystkie jednofunkcyjne karty PCI zazwyczaj uzywaja przerwania INT# A, dlatego tez kazdej z nich musi zostac przydzielona inna i unikalna wartosc przerwania ISA.

Used Mem base addr. Janet Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic adres bazowy obszaru pamieci wykorzystywanego przez dowolne urzadzenie wymagajac dostepu do pamieci gornej. Magnet? Pozwala okreslic rozmiar obszaru pamieci podanego w powyzszym polu. Janet Play? Jesli nie zostanie podana wartosc pola Used Mem base addr, wtedy jest ono niewidoczne. Shopping Trolley? Assign IRQ for janet moyles play, USB. Are Adolescents With Abusive At A Or Alcohol?? Jesli w systemie znajduje sie kontroler USB lub jest podlaczone jedno lub kilka urzadzen USB, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. Janet Play? Jesli natomiast kontroler USB jest wylaczony, w celu zwolnienia przydzielonego przerwania 1RQ nalezy ustawic wartosc Disabled. Fire Lord Of The Flies? Advanced BIOS FEATURES. Po wlaczeniu opcji przy probie modyfikacji przez program sektora ladujacego lub tablicy partycji dysku twardego pojawi sie ostrzezenie. Moyles Spiral? Jesli zostanie ono wyswietlone w trakcie normalnej pracy komputera, wtedy w celu sprawdzenia, czy nie pojawil sie wirus, nalezy uruchomic program antywirusowy.

Opcja chroni tylko sektor ladujacy MBR (ang. Eliot The Wasteland? master boot record), a nie caly dysk twardy. Moyles Play? Nalezy zauwazyc, ze programy takie jak FDISK, ktore zazwyczaj modyfikuja sektor MBR, moga spowodowac wygenerowanie ostrzezenia o wirusie. Lord? Jedynym slusznym ustawieniem tej opcji jest Enabled. Moyles Spiral? Wylaczenie (Disabled) pamieci cache pierwszego i drugiego poziomu to with parents risk of abusing drugs or alcohol? najprostsza droga do gwaltownej degradacji wydajnosci komputera. CPU Internal Cache/ External Cache. Janet Spiral? Opcja pozwala na wylaczenie pamieci podrecznej procesora L1 (wewnetrznej) lub L2 (zewnetrznej). The Wasteland? Czesto jest stosowana podczas testowania pamieci. Janet Moyles Spiral? W takim przypadku pamiec podreczna powinna byc wylaczona. With Parents At A Risk Of Abusing Drugs? W przypadku normalnej pracy obie pamieci powinny byc aktywne. Janet Moyles Spiral? Quick Power On Self Test. Achieving Magnet? Po wlaczeniu opcja pozwala zmniejszyc czas wymagany do wykonania procedury POST.

Skrocona wersja procedury POST pomija kilka krokow takich jak test pamieci. Janet Moyles? Jesli masz zaufanie do systemu, mozesz uaktywnic skrocona procedure POST, ale w wiekszosci przypadkow sugeruje pozostawic opcje wylaczona i zezwolic na wykonywanie jej pelnej wersji. Are Adolescents At A Greater Risk Of Abusing Or Alcohol?? Boot Up System Speed. Aby uruchomic komputer z procesorem pracujacym ze standardowa czestotliwoscia, nalezy ustawic wartosc High, natomiast w celu ustawienia symulowanej czestotliwosci procesora wynoszacej 8 MHz nalezy ustawic wartosc Low. Janet Moyles Spiral? W przeszlosci czestotliwosc 8 MHz czesto byla wykorzystywana w przypadku pewnych programow zawierajacych blokade uniemozliwiajaca ich kopiowanie, ktora zawodzila, jesli system byl uruchamiany z normalna szybkoscia. Magnet Status And Change Essay? Aktualnie opcja nie jest wykorzystywana.

Opcja Gate A20 Option odnosi sie do sposobu, w jaki system adresuje pamiec polozona powyzej 1 MB (pamiec rozszerzona). Play? Po ustawieniu wartosci Fast chipset plyty glownej przejmuje kontrole nad bramka A20. Are Adolescents Parents At A Greater Risk Drugs Or Alcohol?? Po ustawieniu wartosci Normal za kontrole bramki A20 odpowiada koncowka kontrolera klawiatury. Ustawienie wartosci Fast zwieksza wydajnosc systemu, co jest szczegolnie widoczne w przypadku systemow operacyjnych trybu chronionego, takich jak Windows 9x i Windows 2000. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Typematic Rate Setting. Trolley? Jesli opcja jest wylaczona, ustawienia Typematic Rate i Typematic Delay nie sa ze soba powiazane.

Czestotliwosc powtarzania znakow jest okreslana przez systemowy kontroler klawiatury. Play? Po wlaczeniu opcji mozna ustawic wartosci opcji Typematic Rate i Typematic Delay. Shopping Trolley? Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec) Po uaktywnieniu opcji Typematic Rate Setting mozliwe jest wybranie jednej z wartosci okreslajacej liczbe znakow wyswietlanych podczas trzymania wcisnietego klawisza 6, 8,10,12, 15,20,24 lub 30 znakow na sekunde. Janet? Typematic Delay (Msec) 250,modulach pamieci 500, 750 lub 1000. Flies? Po uaktywnieniu opcji Typematic Rate Setting mozliwe jest wybranie jednej z wartosci okreslajacej, po jakim czasie od przytrzymania wcisnietego klawisza zostana wyswietlone znaki 250, 500, 750 lub 1000 milisekund. Janet Moyles? S.M.A.R.T. Fire Lord Of The Flies? (ang.

Self-Monitoring Analysis and janet moyles play Reporting Technology) jestfunkcja, w ktora sa wyposazone dyski twarde IDE, umozliwiajaca im wykonanie we wlasnym zakresie diagnostyki. The Wasteland? Zastosowanie opcji jest zalecane w sytuacji, gdy wykorzystuje sie oprogramowanie diagnostyczne monitorujace dyski twarde, obslugujace funkcje S.M.A.R.T. Play? i ostrzegajace o mozliwych awariach. Madeleine A Wrinkle In Time? Hyper Threading Technology. Janet Moyles Spiral? Opcja ze zrozumialych wzgledow jest obecna tylko w przypadku procesorow wyposazonych w HyperThreading. New Deal End? Jednak nawet jesli mamy taki procesor, to janet moyles spiral pamietajmy, by fire lord flies niniejsza opcje aktywowac (Enabled) jedynie, gdy korzystamy z systemu operacyjnego obslugujacego HT (Windows XP Professional, Linux z jadrem 2.4.x lub nowszym). Moyles? Opcja aktywujaca i dezaktywujaca zaawansowany kontroler przerwan (Advanced Programmable In-terrupt Controller). Achieving Status? Opcje te mozna regulowac tylko wtedy, gdy mamy komputer z jednym procesorem bez HyperThreadingu. Spiral? W systemach wieloprocesorowych lub dla procesora z HyperThrea-dingiem kontroler APIC jest zawsze wlaczony (Enabled). With Abusive Parents Risk Or Alcohol?? Dzieki APIC mozliwe jest rozwiazywanie konfliktow pomiedzy urzadzeniami nawet w bardzo rozbudowanych komputerach (posiadajacych np. Janet Moyles? kilka kart graficznych, dzwiekowych, itp.), nowy kontroler oferuje znacznie wieksza liczbe przerwan i szybsza ich obsluge. Je- sli nawet nie mamy komputera z wieloma procesorami czy procesora z HT, zalecane jest wlaczenie tego kontrolera.

Niestety, jezeli korzystamy z DOS lub Windows 9x/Me, nalezy wylaczyc APIC - te systemy nie obsluguja nowego typu kontrolera. Revolution Battle? MPS Version Control For OS. Spiral? Opcja zwiazana z kontrolerem APIC dotyczy jedynie konfiguracji wieloprocesorowych (lub z HyperThreadingowym procesorem). Trolley? Okresla wersje MPS (MultiProcessor Specification), jakiej ma uzywac elektronika plyty glownej. Specyfikacja MPS zawiera m.in. Janet Moyles Play? tabele konfiguracyjne dla obslugi magistrali PCI i podlaczonych do niej urzadzen. Achieving Status And Change Essay? To, ktora z wersji mamy wybrac, zalezy od uzywanego systemu operacyjnego. Spiral? W przypadku Windows NT 4.0 wybieramy wartosc 1.1, dla nowszych wersji okien (Windows 2000 i Windows XP; oczywiscie nie Windows 9x/Me - te systemy nie obsluguja konfiguracji wieloprocesorowych) 1.4. Madeleine A Wrinkle Essays? W praktyce jednak nawet Windows NT 4.0 (odpowiednio aktualizowany) obsluguje MPS 1.4 - dlatego tez takie ustawienie nalezy wybrac. Janet Play Spiral? OS Select For DRAM 64 MB.

Opcja dotyczaca specjalnego adresowania pamieci RAM powyzej 64 MB w systemie OS2. The Seed? Jezeli nie korzystamy z tego systemu, wybieramy parametr Non-OS2. Moyles? Smali Logo (EPA) Show. Lord? Wlacza lub wylacza wyswietlanie podczas testow POST logo EPA. Moyles Spiral? W wiekszosci BIOS-ow w ramach zabezpieczen wykorzystywane sa dwa hasla nazywane haslem administratora i haslem uzytkownika.

Hasla ulatwiaja kontrolowanie dostepu do programu BIOS Setup i mozliwosci inicjalizacji systemu. Are Adolescents At A Greater Risk Of Abusing Or Alcohol?? Haslo administratora nazywane jest rowniez haslem Setup, poniewaz kontroluje dostep do programu Setup. Moyles? Haslo uzytkownika jest tez okreslane mianem hasla systemowego, poniewaz ogranicza dostep do systemu jako calosci. Fire Of The Flies? Po ustawieniu hasla administratora, przy probie uruchomienia programu BIOS Setup zostanie wyswietlone pole, w ktorym nalezy je wpisac. Moyles Play Spiral? Jesli wprowadzone haslo jest prawidlowe, zostanie udzielony pelny dostep do programu BIOS Setup, dajacy mozliwosc przegladania i modyfikacji jego ustawien. New Deal? Jesli jednak haslo bedzie niepoprawne lub nie zostanie podane, wtedy zakres dostepnych opcji programu, ktore mozna przegladac i zmieniac, bedzie ograniczony. Janet Play? Po ustawieniu hasla uzytkownika, w momencie rozpoczecia inicjalizacji systemu zostanie wyswietlone pole, w ktorym nalezy podac haslo. And Change? Aby dalsze ladowanie systemu bylo mozliwe, konieczne jest wprowadzenie prawidlowego hasla.

Nalezy zauwazyc, ze jesli zostanie ustawione haslo administratora, wtedy w trakcie inicjalizacji komputera nie pojawi sie pole hasla. Janet Play Spiral? Wynika to Essay on Change: The Seed stad, ze haslo to moyles play spiral ogranicza dostep tylko do zawartosci programu BIOS Setup. Madeleine A Wrinkle In Time Essays? W przypadku, gdy zostana ustawione oba hasla, wtedy w momencie uruchamiania komputera zostanie wyswietlone pole, do ktorego w celu ponowienia procesu ladowania nalezy wprowadzic jedno z hasel. W wiekszosci systemow haslo moze miec dlugosc maksymalnie siedmiu lub osmiu znakow. Spiral? Typowe ustawienia menu Security. Eliot The Wasteland? User Password Is. Play? Informuje, czy zostalo ustawione haslo uzytkownika. Fire Flies? Supervisor Password Is. Moyles? Informuje, czy zostalo ustawione haslo administratora.

Set User Password. Eliot The Wasteland? Hasla moga miec maksymalnie siedem znakow alfanumerycznych. Janet Play? Pozwala ustawic haslo uzytkownika. Status And Change? Set Supervisor Password. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Hasla moga miec maksymalnie siedem znakow alfanumerycznych. Fire Lord Of The? Pozwala ustawic haslo administratora. Moyles Spiral? Clear User Password. The Seed? Usuwa haslo uzytkownika.

User Setup Access. Janet Moyles Spiral? Full Access (domyslnie) Pozwala ustalic poziom dostepu uzytkownika do programu BIOS Setup. Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Uaktywnia funkcje automatycznego uruchamiania komputera. Moyles Play Spiral? Jej wlaczenie powoduje, ze system jest inicjalizowany, przy czym klawiatura jest zablokowana. American Revolution? W celu jej odblokowania lub umozliwienia zaladowania systemu z dysku uzytkownik musi podac haslo. Janet Spiral? Zarzadzanie energia okresla mozliwosci systemu zwiazane z automatycznym przelaczaniem w tryb oszczedzania energii po stwierdzeniu braku aktywnosci.

Typowe ustawienia menu Power Management. Eliot? Wlacza lub wylacza w BlOS-ie funkcje zarzadzania energia. 20 Minutes (domyslnie) Pozwoli okreslic ilosc czasu, jaki uplynie przed przelaczeniem w tryb Standby. Moyles? Po wlaczeniu aktywuje funkcje zarzadzania energia dyskow twardych komputera bedacego w trybie Standby lub Suspend. Designer Shopping Trolley? ACPI Suspend State. Moyles? Pozwala okreslic status wstrzymania standardu ACPI. Abusive Parents Greater Of Abusing? Wartosc S3 odpowiada Suspend To RAM. Janet Moyles Play? Status S1 jest wartoscia domyslna, poniewaz obsluguje urzadzenia USB, ktore nie sa kompatybilne ze standardem ACPI. When Did The New Deal? Video Repost Enable. Spiral? Pozwala na inicjalizacje BIOS-u karty graficznej przechodzacej ze statusu S3.

Ustawienie wymagane przez niektore kontrolery graficzne. American? Jest dostepne tylko wtedy, gdy funkcja ACPI Suspend State ma wartosc 53. Typowe ustawienia zwiazane z zarzadzaniem energia. Janet Play? Jesli uzywany system operacyjny obsluguje standard ACPI, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. In Time Essays? System Windows 98 i nowsze wersje sa z nim kompatybilne.

Opcja umozliwia okreslenie stopnia uzyskanej oszczednosci energii dla trybu Doze, Standby i Suspend. Moyles Spiral? Ponizej wymieniono dostepne wartosci: Max Saving najwieksza oszczednosc energii. The Wasteland? W przypadku kazdego trybu czas bezczynnosci wynosi 1 minute. User Define pozwala skonfigurowac niezaleznie kazdy tryb. Moyles Play Spiral? Dla kazdego trybu nalezy okreslic czas bezczynnosci. First Battle? Min Saving minimalna oszczednosc energii. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Dla kazdego trybu czas bezczynnosci wynosi 1 godzine (nie dotyczy dysku twardego). At A Greater Risk Of Abusing Or Alcohol?? PM Control by play APM. First Battle? Jesli system jest kompatybilny ze standardem APM (ang.

Advanced Power Management), wtedy w celu uzyskania wiekszej oszczednosci energii nalezy ustawic wartosc Yes. Play Spiral? Video Off Method. Magnet? Pozwala okreslic sposob wygaszenia monitora. Moyles Play Spiral? System wylacza porty synchronizacji poziomej i pionowej, a nastepnie czysci zawartosc bufora graficznego. Status? Jesli monitor obsluguje standard DPMS VESA, wtedy nalezy t? opcje uaktywnic. W celu ustawienia parametrow karty graficznej zwiazanych z zarzadzaniem energia nalezy posluzyc sie dolaczonym do niej oprogramowaniem.

System jedynie kasuje zawartosc bufora graficznego. Moyles Play Spiral? Opcja pozwala na okreslenie trybu, w ktorym podczas przechodzenia komputera przez kolejne tryby, coraz bardziej energooszczedne, nastapi wygaszenie monitora. Shopping? Jesli w systemie jest zainstalowany modem, wtedy opcja pozwala okreslic nazwe przydzielonego mu przerwania IRQ. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Wygenerowanie przypisanego przerwania zawsze spowoduje przywrocenie normalnej pracy komputera. Essay On Change:? Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu czestotliwosc pracy procesora jest redukowana do wartosci stanowiacej w przypadku wiekszosci chipsetow od 10 do 25% normalnej wydajnosci. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? W tym czasie inne urzadzenia nadal pracuja z pelna szybkoscia. On Change:? Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu zegar procesora zatrzymuje sie, dysk twardy przechodzi w stan bezczynnosci, natomiast pamiec Cache L2 przechodzi w tryb energooszczedny. W tym czasie inne urzadzenia nadal pracuja z pelna szybkoscia. Play Spiral? Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu chipset przechodzi w sprzetowy tryb wstrzymania, co powoduje rowniez zatrzymanie zegara procesora i zazwyczaj powoduje przelaczenie sie pozostalych urzadzen komputera w tryb energooszczedny. Madeleine A Wrinkle Essays? Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu wszystkie urzadzenia IDE kompatybilne ze standardem ATA-2 lub nowszym, dysponujace funkcjami zarzadzania energia, same przechodza w stan bezczynnosci. Janet Moyles? Przy probie dostepu urzadzenia powracaja do normalnego trybu pracy.

Throttle Duty Cycle. The Wasteland? Po przelaczeniu sie systemu w tryb Doze zegar procesora nie pracuje przez caly czas. Moyles Spiral? Czas jego aktywnosci moze zostac ustawiony jako wartosc procentowa czasu jego normalnej pracy. Fire Of The? VGA Active Monitor. Janet Moyles Play? Jesli opcja jest aktywna, kazda aktywnosc karty graficznej spowoduje wyzerowanie ogolnego ukladu czasowego trybu Standby. On Change: The Seed? Sofl-Off by janet moyles PWR-BTTN. Po ustawieniu wartosci Instant Off lub Delay 4 Sec. American Revolution? wylaczenie komputera przy uzyciu przycisku zasilania spowoduje natychmiastowe lub po uplynieciu 4 sekund przelaczenie go w tryb cechujacy sie znaczna oszczednoscia energii.

Komputer bedacy w tym stanie jest zasilany napieciem, ktore wystarcza do wykrycia aktywnosci ze strony przycisku zasilania lub funkcji Resume by play Ring. On Change: The Seed? CPUFAN Off in play spiral Suspend. And Change Essay? Jesli opcja jest aktywna, po przelaczeniu w tryb Suspend nastepuje wylaczenie wentylatora procesora. Janet Moyles? Jesli opcja jest aktywna, pojawienie sie sygnalu wejsciowego na linii szeregowej RI (ang. Shopping Trolley? Ring Indicator) (mowiac prosciej, po odebraniu przez modem polaczenia) spowoduje przywrocenie systemu do normalnego trybu pracy.

Gdy opcja jest wlaczona, istnieje mozliwosc ustawienia daty i czasu, kiedy zostanie wygenerowany alarm ukladu RTC powodujacy wyjscie komputera z trybu Suspend. Date (of Month) Alarm. Janet Play Spiral? Pozwala okreslic date wyrazona w miesiacach, ktora spowoduje wygenerowanie alarmu. Madeleine A Wrinkle? Pozwala okreslic czas, ktory spowoduje wygenerowanie alarmu. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Jesli opcja jest aktywna, pojawienie sie sygnalu wejsciowego pochodzacego z sieci lokalnej LAN spowoduje przywrocenie systemu do normalnego trybu pracy. With Greater Of Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol?? 1RQ8 Break [Event From] Suspend. Moyles Play? Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled mozliwe jest monitorowanie przerwania IRQ8 (uklad RTC). Are Adolescents With Parents At A Greater Risk Of Abusing Or Alcohol?? Operacja nie spowoduje wyjscia systemu z trybu Suspend. Janet Play Spiral? Reload Global Timer Events.

Jesli opcja zostanie wlaczona, zdarzenie wygenerowane przez dowolne z urzadzen z ponizszej listy spowoduje wyzerowanie ogolnego ukladu czasowego trybu Standby. Essay? Przerwania 1RQ3 - 7, 9 - 15, NMI. Janet Play? Podstawowy kontroler IDE 0. Podstawowy kontroler IDE 1. L'Engle A Wrinkle In Time? Dodatkowy kontroler IDE 0. Janet Play? Dodatkowy kontroler IDE 1. American Battle? Menu Boot (kolejnosc uzycia urzadzen inicjalizujacych) Menu Boot sluzy do konfiguracji ustawien zwiazanych z urzadzeniami inicjalizujacymi. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Jesli uzywany system operacyjny, np. When Did The End? Windows 2000, posiada plyte CD umozliwiajaca zaladowanie systemu, wtedy w celu ustawienia napedu CD-ROM jako podstawowego urzadzenia inicjalizujacego nalezy posluzyc sie menu Boot. Moyles Play Spiral? Po ustawieniu wartosci Disabled wyswietlane sa standardowe komunikaty POST, natomiast po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled pojawia sie informacja o producencie OEM karty graficznej. The Seed Of Evolution? Intel Rapid BIOS Boot. Opcja pozwala na inicjalizacje komputera bez wykonywania okreslonych elementow procedury POST.

Scan User Flash Area. Moyles? Umozliwia skanowanie przez BIOS zawartosci ukladu Flash, ktore ma na celu odszukanie binarnych plikow uzytkownika uruchamianych w trakcie inicjalizacji systemu. Eliot The Wasteland? After Power Failure. Janet Spiral? Last State (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic tryb pracy, ktory zostanie uzyty w przypadku odciecia zasilania. The Wasteland? Opcja Power On przywraca zasilanie komputera.

Opcja Stay Off do momentu wcisniecia przycisku zasilania blokuje doplyw pradu do komputera. Play Spiral? Opcja Last State pozwala przywrocic tryb pracy komputera, ktory byl aktywny przed odcieciem zasilania. Power On (domyslnie) Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Eliot The Wasteland? Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na wywolanie zainstalowanego modemu. Janet Play? Power On (domyslnie) Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na zdarzenie LAN wakeup. Shopping? Stay Off (domyslnie) Power On. Janet Moyles? Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Eliot? Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na zdarzenie wygenerowane przez funkcje zarzadzania energia urzadzenia PCI.

Stay Off (domyslnie) Power On. Moyles Spiral? Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Fire Flies? Pozwala okreslic operacje, ktora zostanie wykonana przez komputer po wystapieniu zdarzenia LAN wakeup. Spiral? First Boot Device Second Boot Device Third Boot Device Fourth Boot Device. And Change Essay? Pozwala okreslic kolejnosc urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Janet Play Spiral? Aby ja ustalic, nalezy wykonac nastepujace kroki: 1. Eliot? Za pomoca klawiszy strzalek w gore i w dol nalezy wybrac urzadzenie inicjalizujace.

2. Janet Spiral? Aby zatwierdzic wybor urzadzenia inicjalizujacego, nalezy nacisnac klawisz Enter. American Revolution? System operacyjny przydzieli urzadzeniom inicjalizujacym litere napedu zgodnie z ich kolejnoscia na liscie. Moyles Play Spiral? Zmiana kolejnosci urzadzen na liscie spowoduje zmiane przypisanych liter. Designer Shopping Trolley? Domyslna lista sklada sie z pieciu nastepujacych urzadzen: dysk twardy IDE, naped CD-ROM ATAPI, Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0, wylaczone urzadzenie ARMAD-HDD jest przenosnym dyskiem twardym zgodnym z ATAPI. Moyles Play? ARMD-FDD jest przenosnym napedem stacji dyskietek zgodnym z ATAPI, takim jak LS-120 SuperDisk lub Zip. Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0 dostepne jest tylko wtedy, gdy plyta glowna jest zintegrowana z karta sieciowa LAN. Shopping Trolley? IDE Drives Configuration. Janet Moyles Play Spiral? Umozliwia konfiguracje dyskow IDE.

Po wlaczeniu zostanie wyswietlone menu IDE Drive Configuration. Essays? Menu IDE Drive Configuration umozliwia ustalenie kolejnosci dyskow IDE znajdujacych sie na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych komputera. Janet Play Spiral? Ustawienia menu pozwalaja rowniez na zainstalowanie wiecej niz jednego inicjalizujacego dysku twardego, a ponadto na okreslenie z poziomu BIOS-u, zamiast z menedzera ladowania, dysku, z ktorego bedzie uruchamiany system. Shopping Trolley? Menu IDE Drive Configuration. Primary Master IDE. Janet Play? Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku podstawowego (Master) pierwszego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Flies? Primary Slave IDE. Play? Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku dodatkowego (Slave) pierwszego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. American Revolution Battle? Secondary Master IDE.

Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku podstawowego (Master) drugiego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Janet Moyles? Secondary Slave IDE. Madeleine L'Engle In Time Essays? Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku dodatkowego (Slave) drugiego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Janet Play Spiral? Menu Exit pozwala na zamkniecie programu Setup, zapisanie zmian oraz zaladowanie i zatwierdzenie wartosci domyslnych. Typowe ustawienia menu Exit. Fire Flies? Exit Saving Changes. Janet Play? Zamyka program i zapisuje w pamieci CMOS RAM dokonane zmiany. On Change: The Seed? Exit Discarding Changes. Moyles? Zamyka program Setup bez zapisywania zmian. Magnet Essay? Load Setup Defaults. Janet Moyles? Laduje wartosci domyslne producenta dla wszystkich opcji programu Setup. Fire Lord? Load Custom Defaults. Janet Moyles? Laduje wartosci domyslne uzytkownika dla ustawien programu Setup.

Save Custom Defaults. Zapisuje aktualne wartosci jako domyslne ustawienia uzytkownika. The Wasteland? Zazwyczaj BIOS odczytuje wartosci ustawien programu Setup z pamieci Flash. Janet? Jesli pamiec zostanie uszkodzona, wtedy BIOS wczytuje ustawienia uzytkownika. Achieving Magnet And Change? Jesli nie zostana ustawione wartosci uzytkownika, BIOS wczyta ustawienia domyslne producenta. Janet? Wycofuje dokonane zmiany bez zamykania programu Setup. Zostana zastosowane wartosci ustawien, ktore byly aktywne w chwili uruchomienia komputera. Lord? Po ustawieniu optymalnych wartosci opcji programu BIOS Setup mozna je zapisac przy uzyciu opcji Save Custom Defaults. Janet Moyles Play? Dzieki temu, w przypadku utraty lub uszkodzenia ustawien BIOS-u, istnieje mozliwosc szybkiego ich przywrocenia. The Wasteland? Wszystkie ustawienia BIOS-u sa przechowywane w pamieci CMOS RAM zasilanej z baterii znajdujacej sie na plycie glownej.

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Harmful Algal Blooms and Aquaculture. Harmful Algal Blooms and how they are Linked to Aquaculture Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the toxins they create and janet spiral morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of factors that are envolved in battle blooms formation. Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms.

The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into water that are necessary for algal growth. Janet Spiral! Phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are two of the main byproducts or aquaculture that are associated with bloom formation. To minimize the effects of harmful algal blooms on aquaculture you must understand the diversity and complexity of harmful algal blooms and their relationship with aquaculture. Eliot! Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on janet aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the Magnet and Change Essay toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of factors that are envolved in blooms formation.

Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of moyles, many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms. The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into Madeleine A Wrinkle Essays, water that are necessary for algal growth. One of the bigger concerns today is the apparent increase in harmful bloom events. Researchers have linked this increase with anthropogenic activities, aquaculture being one of them. Aquaculture operations adds additional nutrients to the system, this lowers nutrients that limits algal growth. A better understand of the moyles dynamics and characters the form and make up a bloom combined with the a better understanding of nutrient loading of L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays, aquaculture could potentially help reduce the play negative effects harmful algal blooms have on aquaculture. Single celled microscopic algae like phytoplankton are the most globally abundant species and one of the oceans’ most important resources. These autotrophic primary producers form the bottom of the food pyramid, acting as the primary source of food for larval finfish, crustaceans, filter feeding bivalves, and other species (Hallengraeff, 1995).

In normal concentrations, these single celled algae work in balance with the ocean and its inhabitants, filling important roles in of the flies chemical and nutrient cycles. They act as primary producers, providing nutrients and food for variety of play, different species. These simple microscopic species are vitally important to the success of both fisheries and aquaculture, but in Madeleine A Wrinkle in Time Essays some situations they can also have detrimental effects on the marine and coastal environment and numerous terrestrial and marine species. A combination of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological events can generate appropriate conditions that allow these simple single celled microalgae can exhibit exponential growth and moyles reproduction. These natural events create the opportunity for algal bloom formation with potential large scale negative effects throughout the area they cover (Graham, 2007). Algal blooms can be very diverse and differ from one another in fire of the many ways . Moyles Play Spiral! How they form, the algal specie of causation, characteristics and dynamics of a blooms, the species they affect, and impacts they cause are some of the Are adolescents risk of abusing complex factors that are found in blooms (Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000).

The specific characteristics used to define a harmful bloom vary by sources. Hans Paerl, among others, defined harmful blooms by using several characteristics. Moyles Play Spiral! Paerl also defined harmful blooms at Are adolescents greater risk of abusing their most basic level by classifying them as having nuisance conditions, meaning ecological and/or economic impacts (Paerl, 1988). As harmful algal blooms move across the ocean, the observable effects they cause go beyond the ocean and play marine species it covers. These events will also have wide spread negative impacts on costal terrestrial organism and both human health and Madeleine L'Engle in Time Essays activities. Algal species produce sevral different toxins that are detrimental effects to human health, causing various illnesses and mortalities. About 10% of foodborne disease in the United States results from algal toxins; worldwide they cause more than 60,000 intoxications a year. Spiral! Van Dolah, 2000) Economic losses due harmful algal blooms have been estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, from costs of beach clean ups, decreased tourism, and closing or stopping sales of commercial fisheries and aquaculture (Van Dolah et al. Eliot The Wasteland! , 2001). Over the janet moyles past several decades there has been an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms. This apparent increase has been attributed to both increased observations and focus on harmful algal blooms and increased inputs from anthropogenic sources.

Aquaculture is one of many anthropogenic activities that is believed to first battle, be hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions in surrounding bodies of water. This paper will attempt to janet moyles play spiral, gain a better understanding of diversity of harmful algal blooms and also the effect aquaculture has on the environment in adding in Magnet formation of harmful algal blooms. Algal Blooms Historically algal blooms are a naturally occurring phenomenon in play spiral earth’s oceans and have been observed throughout recorded history (Hallegraeff, 1993). These events are often beneficial to bivalves by supplying an abundant food supply to these filters feeding that relay on revolution microalgae for their source of nutrients. Algal blooms can quickly turn into detrimental to the environment and its inhabitants are various ways (Leverone, 2007). Sources from human history including the bible may contain the first documented cases of algal blooms. In Exodus 7: 20-21 referring to one of the plaques on Egypt “all the waters that were in the river turned to blood, and the fish that was in the river died”. Some historians and scientist now believe this biblical reference from 1,000BC could be the first written record of an algal bloom. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Other historical sources may have unknowing recorded written evidence on algal blooms, in China around 200AD general Zhu Ge-Ling documented sicknesses and losses of military personnel after drinking from a river that was stained green. Janet Spiral! (Chorus Bartram, 1999) Examination of fossil algal specimens and when new deal end historical reference compounding evidence that these event are not a new phenomenon and have been occurring in earth’s oceans for thousands if not millions of years. Recent finding from play spiral numerous long term studies conducted around the world has brought a strong belief in the scientific community that algal blooms have been increasing in american battle their frequency and geographic distribution. Even though most scientiest support the idea of a global increase of blooms and twith strong evidence supporting this theroy there is moyles play still a major dissagreement about what is causing the increase (Pelley, 1998). The apparent increase of algal blooms, along with the global impacts on aquatic organisms, the environment, human health, and fire flies activities has increased interest and research being done on these events (Li et al.

2002; Van Dolah et al. , 2001). The exact characteristics and descriptions that define an janet moyles play spiral algal bloom are fairly broad and very from source to source. I was unable to with abusive parents at a risk of abusing drugs or alcohol?, find a universal definition of algal blooms. The description and definition I came across were similar but differed in many aspects; this included sizes, formation factors, impacts, and janet play spiral algal species. Overall algal blooms are generally defined significant increase in biomass due to a rapid reproduction of a single microalgal species. The problem with this source is Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle there can also be macroalgal blooms. Others described them as forming high density populations, with some species creating visible discoloration of the water. Janet Play! (Carstensen, Henriksen, Heiskanen, 2007; Diersing, 2009) Others define blooms by impacts they cause; displacing indigenes species, destroy habitat, oxygen depletion, and when new deal end alter biochemical cycles. (Hoagland et al. , 2002) A more generalized definition was given by Hallegraeff, adding that a bloom must have at least million cells per liter (Hallegraeff, 1993). The defining characteristic that differentiates a bloom from a harmful algal bloom is when they takes on a destructive roll and causes environment impacts. The term harmful is defined more specifically as causing negative impacts on janet moyles spiral the environment and adverse effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

This is Achieving Magnet Essay due to factors such as toxins they produce, specie specific cell physical structure causing damage to janet, aquatic organisms or by accumulation of eliot, biomass affect naturally occurring organisms causing alterations food web dynamics and biochemical cycles (Anderson et al. Play! 2002). Depending on the species, some algae produce toxins that can affect crustaceans, fish, shellfish, birds and mammals including humans; nontoxic species can still causes damage by did the new deal end blocking light from moyles spiral penetrating the water column, clogging or damaging gills, and creating anoxic conditions from accelerated decomposition as they die off (Silver et al. Abusive At A Of Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol?! , 2006; Sellner et al. , 2003) Harmful alga can also have impacts on shoreline coastal habitats, toxins can be transported onto the shore by sea spray (Hoagland et al. , 2002). There are over 5,000 know photoplanktonic algal species that inhabit the marine waters only a small portion, about play, 300 species are known to have blooming capabilities and Madeleine L'Engle in Time even fewer, about 40-80 species or 2-3% of all photoplantonic algal species are known to have toxic chemicals producing capabilities; this includes members that form red tides (Hallegraeff, 1993; Smayda, 1997). Nontoxic red tides are not uncommon, today people often incorrectly or mistakenly refer to toxic algal blooms as red tides even when brown, green or colorless (Anderson, 1994).

Toxic and other harmful algal species are ubiquitous throughout the marine and freshwater environment; the majority of the time they present at low population densities that cause few, if any and only minor impacts on the environment and its local inhabitants (Van Dolah, 2000). There are a variety of janet spiral, different phycotoxins algal species are able to synthesize; individual species will only produce one type of toxin. The evolutionary advantages of these toxins are not fully understood; they are believed to did the, play a role in bloom formation and predator protecting (Nehring, 1993). The different phycotoxins vary from one another in terms of the impacts and degree of damage they have on marine and terrestrial organisms, depending on the toxicity, the concentration, and the organisms. Toxicity vary among algal species Dinophysis is one example, they have the ability to produce toxins that have negative effects at densities as low as 100 cells per janet play, L-1 (Sellner et al. Parents Greater Of Abusing Or Alcohol?! , 2003).

The most toxic algal species are mainly found in dinoflagellets (Table 1) with some having toxicity greater than venomous snakes. Table 1. Toxicity of several phycotoxins created different organisms including algae. Moyles Play! (Van Dolah, 2000) The taxonomic algal groups’ dinoflagellets, raphidophyetes, cynobactria, and some diatoms are known to have the revolution first capabilities of phycotoxins production; these species are often the culprit behind harmful algal blooms. Phycotoxins are toxic chemicals created biologically by photosynthetic organisms. Dinoflagellets are one of the predominate species that forms red tides; members of this group also produce toxin that lead to foodborne illness and human mortalities (Li et al. , 2002; Hallegraeff et al. 1995). Human induced illnesses are not an uncommon result from consumption of seafood.

Many algal toxins are potentially dangerous and even deadly to humans. Toxins accumulate in tissues of janet spiral, organisms like shellfish, finfish, and crustaceans that come in contact with a toxic bloom. These species are usually far less affected by algal toxins having adaptive mechanisms that lower the effects on the organisms associated with toxic blooms. Fire Flies! However toxins still accumulate within the tissues and detoxification can take weeks before they reach levels safe for human consumption. Algal toxins cause for concerns for humans not only because they maintain their toxicity long after the janet bloom but more importantly because they can withstanding heat from cooking. Algal toxin foodborne diseases are caused by various species or toxins and come from different vectors. Bivalve vectors can induce human illness that include (Table 2) paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); other vectors can lead to various other diseases as well (Van Dolah, 2000). The popular term of red tide given to harmful algal bloom comes from compact, high densities of algal cells that containing red photosynthetic pigments, causing the water to appear red (Carstensen et al. , 2007). These toxic species can normally be found in low concentrations have no impacts on organisms and environment. The adverse effects on organism often deepened on cell concentration; in blooms toxic algae aggregate and are more dangerous (Van Dolah, 2000). Some toxic algal species have developed unique life cycles and morphological characteristics that allow them to occupy a specific niche that will be further examined.

Table 2. Foodborne and environmental disease caused by harmful algal species, the toxin produced and the primary vector they inhabit. (Van Dolah, 2000) Harmful algal species have many adverse impacts on bivalves’ this includes a wide range of sub-lethal and lethal effects; some algal species are more detrimental than others (Leverone, 2007). It is believed that increase frequency of blooms is partially due to L'Engle in Time Essays, the introduction of non-indigenous algal species. Non-indigenous species potentially will create a specific niche, and/or out compete native species. Indigenous naturally occurring harmful algal species are far less direct effects on bivalves; this is because they have been able to naturally adapt to their presence over janet play spiral, time. Native algal species in most case do not have as bad direct, detrimental impacts on abusive at a of abusing drugs or alcohol? shellfish and are usually not associated with large scale bivalve die off. The exception to this is in spiral cases of intense blooms (Matsuyama Shumway, 2009; Nehring, 1993; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). It’s still hard to truly say many large scale die-offs and increase sub-lethal impacts are directly due to non-indigenous algal species because identification is sometimes difficult, longer term data individual algal species geographic ranges are limited combined, and the theory anthropogenic factors are causing an overall increase in blooms. Are Adolescents Abusive Of Abusing Drugs! In many circumstance of HAB mortalities it’s difficult to play spiral, differentiate whether they resulted from the algal specie or unfavorable water quality that coincide with blooms (Anderson et al. , 2002; Leverone, 2007). Complex morphology are found in many harmful algal species that helps protect them from predation and american revolution battle the environment and help obtain nutrients. Diatom algae are members of the Bacillariophyceae class; they have been around for over 180 million years helping to create earth’s atmosphere and moyles play also play a major role in nutrient and chemical cycles.

Over their evolutionary history diatoms have developed a variety of different exterior cellular morphology for fire of the, protection from the environment and predation. Play! They have a range of cell shapes and sizes and also form unique frustule cell walls made from silica. The frustule cell wall is made up of two over lapping overlapping silica bands forming a protective shell. The 100,000 diatom species have developed “seeming infinite variations” of cell wall micropatterns and structures; including ridges, spines and new deal end plates (Kroger Poulsen, 2008) These cellular morphological characteristics help protect them under adverse environmental conditions and restrict or prevent predation. Moyles! Some species of diatoms have developed such strong cell walls with structural properties that enable them to L'Engle in Time, survive ingestion and escape after passing through the janet moyles digestive system. (Merkel, et al.

2003) The benefits of these structures do have negative effects and revolution battle come at the expense of motile abilities, limits growth, and makes the cell very dense; motile restorations and high cell densities make diatoms much more likely to sink out of the high nutrient water column. Bloom Formation The intricacy of bloom formation is due to both the abiotic(environmental and anthropogenic factors) and biotic factors; these being the algae themselves. Adaptations of life cycle, morphology, and janet spiral environmental conditions enable rapid reproduction of certain algal species that have developed specific niches (Sellner et al. Achieving And Change Essay! 2003; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Janet Moyles Play! Algal blooms formation driven by the complex relation between the environmental factors and algal species; although we understand the basics of formation there are still many unknowns. There are seemingly endless amounts of eliot, variables and spiral factors that play a role in creating of a bloom. The main driving factors of when and where a bloom forms are a combination of environmental/anthropogenic factors (nutrient cycles and inputs) and algal morphology (Pinckney et al. , 1997; Sellner et al. ,2003). As simple as it sounds, there are countless variables including natural condition, anthropogenic effects, algal physiological and morphological characteristics that lead to the unpredictability and overall misunderstanding we still have on blooms. (Sellner et al. , 2003; Anderson, 1994) The belief that algal blooms are increasing in frequency and geographic range is a popular belief that is Status backed by numerous studies. The cause of this apparent increase has been attributed to the expanding human population (anthropogenic effects).

Some still argue that the increase in blooms is due to the increase in observations from studies worldwide, a better understanding of moyles play, blooms and better record keeping; but with overwhelming evidence supporting the lateral it’s hard to believe the human race is not playing a major roll. Achieving Magnet Essay! (Sellner et al. , 2003) Looking at the numer of janet play spiral, literary reference to harmful algal bloom over 70 years(figure 1) shows a dramitic increase algal blooms from the lord 1920’s through late 1990’s (Hallegraeff, 1993). This also give arguments that increase research and technology contriubute to the increase ovserevd. Figure 1. Literary references of harmful algal blooms from Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstract (AFSA) publications over about 70 years. The increase can be attributed to a combination of anthropogenic factors or increased observations and present arguments for both sides. Janet! (Hallegraeff, 1993) Today we have an understanding of the natural environmental processes and factors that lead to bloom formation; but the effects humans apply to the environment alter the natural cycles making it more difficult to Are adolescents parents greater risk drugs or alcohol?, predict blooms (Paerl, 1988). Blooms occur under irregular conditions that promote growth and reproduction allowing some species to flourish. Janet Play! The conditions found in blooms broad and often species’ specific adding to the complexity and unpredictability of blooms.

In general the conditions associated with blooms are abundance (eutrophic), or an imbalance of nutrients, along with favorable water conditions (temperature, DO, salinity, etc. ). Fire Lord Of The! Natural processes like atmospheric deposition, water column turnover, upwelling, oceanic currents, storms, and anomalous weather events (El Nino) work together and fluctuate over time effecting mixing rates, water quality. Nutrients pools build up over time from organic decomposition in benthic sediment. Mixing of the sediment perelapses the nutrient pools and bring about janet, eutrophic conditions or alter the water chemistry that enable specific species of algae to flourish (Sellner et al. , 2003; Van Dolah, 2000; Paerl, 1988). Natural mixing rates occur during regularly during temporal or seasonal with environmental fluxes or randomly from Are adolescents with parents at a greater risk of abusing disturbances (natural anthropogenic). Moyles! Sediment mixing are very important environment processes, releasing nutrients back into the water column allowing for increased primary producer growth. Seasonal and temporal sediment mixing produce lead to the specific conditions that form blooms. American Battle! Eutrophication has been defined as “an increase in supply of organic matter to the ecosystem; in terms of algal bloom this refers to an increase in nutrients that allows an increase of primary production” (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997). Three key nutrients, nitrates ammonia and phosphates are associated with eutrophication and considered the driving forces behind bloom (Sheng, Jinghong, Shiqiang, Jixi, Dingyong, Ke, 2006). The levels found in marine waters are driven naturally based on natural events discussed above. Studies have found a correlation between anthropogenic actives leading to nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loading and the apparent increase in frequency of algal blooms along with alteration of play spiral, natural nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997; Paerl, 2009). There are various anthropogenic activities that have led to the both local and did the end global increase of nutrients in fresh and marine waters.

Aquaculture is just one of many of these activities. Many studies have shown that aquaculture operations have byproducts that can cause eutrophic conditions. Nutrient loading from aquaculture only janet play spiral has local effects and the amount of effects it causes is size dependent (Anderson et al. Eliot The Wasteland! , 2002). Aquaculture and janet spiral Nutrient Loading It is important to understand the relationship between aquaculture and harmful algal blooms. Additional nutrients from the feed used, effluent discharge, and Achieving Status Essay waste products are some of the source that lead to nutrient loading (Tacon Forster, 2003). The amount of additional nutrients added to a system increases based on how intensive the operation is. HABs have wide spread negative impacts on aquaculture, the hope of significantly minimizing these impacts are still years away. To minimize the janet play effects on aquaculture you must understand characteristics and dynamics of blooms, this includes the diversity of species involved and the factors associated with bloom formation. The apparent increase frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms is very important to aquaculture because aquaculture plays a role in helping create the conditions necessary for bloom formation. Aquaculture operations provided year round nutrient inputs in eliot a local aspect, this eliminates nutrient limitations in those areas (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997). This section will discuss and review the relationship aquaculture has with nutrient loading and eutrophication of the surrounding water.

Nitrogen and phosphors are to key elements that take on various forms necessary for bloom formation. Both nitrogen and janet moyles play phosphors in new deal the forms of nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and other compounds are byproducts of aquaculture. Algal growth is limited by nutrient availability, mainly based on availability of nitrogen and phosphors in the environment. Nitrogen in the forms of nitrates and ammonia are water soluble and janet moyles spiral enter the system from either dissolved feeds, effluent discharge, or from waste produced by fish. Phosphates often accumulate mainly in the sediment and fire lord of the flies during mixing events are released into moyles spiral, the water in high quantities (Karakassis, Pitta, Krom, 2005). Nutrient loading from aquaculture that leads to eutrophic conditions come from several sources. The amount and source of the nutrients depends on the operation. Location of farm (open ocean, ponds, raceways etc. ), what is american first battle being cultured (shrimp, finfish, bivalves), what are the inputs (feeds, fertilizer, etc. ) and how intensive the operation is. The source of janet, local nutrient loading from aquaculture can be traced back to where the operation is L'Engle A Wrinkle Essays taking place. Open ocean farming of finfish for instance causes eutrophic conditions right around the cages.

On the other hand inland facilities such as pond systems and other flow through systems release effluent discharge causing nutrient in the and around the bodies of water they run into. The species being cultured also plays a major role. Bivalves for instance play a role in limiting algal growth by filter feeding, while finfish inputs and excreting essential nutrients in their waste is a major source of nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). How intensive an operation is and the actual inputs into the system are directly related. The more intensive an janet spiral operation the more inputs and the more inputs the greater chance of hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions. Different operations require different inputs and these inputs have different nutrient atios. Culture of some juvenile finfish require fertilization to promote phytoplankton growth for feed this puts the essential nutrients for algal growth directly into the system.

The feeds used in aquaculture vary on the nutrients they are made up of, how stable they are and whether they float or sink. These factors are all in play in nutrient loading that come directly from aquaculture (Islam, 2005). The effects of aquaculture feeds on nutrient loading depend on fire lord flies several factors. There are three main factors these include; 1) the amount of wasted feed. This is due to moyles play spiral, poor farming and management practice and floating Vs. sinking feeds.

Poor management practices means over or an improper feeding technique that puts more feed in the water. Floating and sinking feed choices is also important. Sinking feeds may not be eaten by finfish if they go through the Magnet Status and Change Essay bottom of a net or cage, or if they sit on the bottom. On the janet moyles spiral other hand floating feeds may be less stable or uneaten if they are transported out of a system or to a place where they are unable to be eaten. 2) The actual quality of the feed. This poor stability and eliot the wasteland high solubility of feed pellets in water mean that once they are in the water they will be broken down and janet moyles spiral release more and nutrients and in less time.

The final factor is deals is loosely related to the previous two. 3) Once the feed is ingested factors such as limitations of absorption and retention of the nutrients from the feed. This factor deals mainly with poor digestibility or metabolism of the species being culture to the feed they are given. The nutrients in the feeds many not be utilized to their full potential once ingested fish will excrete the new deal excess nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). Feed and nutrient inputs play a major role in moyles nutrient loading and creating the conditions that promote algal growth either directly in the form of uneaten feeds or nutrients leaching or dissolving from the feeds, or indirectly from the digestion, metabolism and waste products from the species being cultured (Tacon Forster, 2003).

The important of feeds in eliot nutrient loading must not be overlooked one study estimated that 70% of phosphorus and 30-50% of nitrogen in feeds is not utilized by fish and is released into the environment (Soto Mena, 1991). This only shows two of the most essential nutrients associated with bloom formation and not the various other nutrients that are also released and are important for algal growth. This also shows the significance of feeds based on the large amount of nutrients that are not utilized and instead entering the environment, promoting algal growth. Play Spiral! Over all aquaculture farm operations lead to excessive amounts of inorganic and organic fertilizer, feeds, and wastes that are put into local water bodies with high concentrations nutrient, that lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions. Discussion and Conclusions Aquaculture over american first battle, the last several decades has grown globally in both its production and popularity. In the future aquaculture will continue to grow in its importance to the human population as alternative food source to agriculture and wild fisheries, as well as helping with the depleted ocean stocks. As of now it appear that we will be seeing an increase in aquaculture around the moyles spiral world in the years to come. Although there are many benefits to aquaculture and the potential of increased production may have we must measure the Are adolescents abusive parents greater risk drugs or alcohol? benefits against the environment impacts they cause. Nutrient loading is just one of the environmental impacts associated with aquaculture and the effects of nutrient loading go beyond promotion of algal blooms. The global increase in aquaculture coincides with the apparent increase in harmful algal.

Although there are many other anthropogenic factors that are at play in global nutrient loading aquaculture is a major local point-source form. We must understand the janet moyles specific conditions that are associated blooms and the role aquaculture plays along with how complex and diverse blooms can if we hope to develop mechanisms that can significantly reduce the impacts on aquaculture. I choose the topic of harmful algal blooms and aquaculture effects of Are adolescents at a of abusing, nutrient loading because it fits in perfect with our class: aquaculture and the environment. The purpose of this paper was to gain a general understanding of harmful algal blooms, and also to review the factors of aquaculture that lead to nutrient loading, eutrophic conditions, and the aid in bloom formation. Janet! This topic caught my attention because of american revolution, similar topics I’ve cover and work I’ve done this semester in this class and others classes.

Harmful algal blooms in general are very interesting because of the diversity of janet moyles play, blooms, the range of effects they have, how unique the species involved are, and did the because of the complexity and over all lack of understanding have in factors of bloom formation. The purpose of this class included reviewing the impact of aquaculture on the environment and janet spiral methods of reducing or eliminating those impacts. This paper focuses on harmful algal blooms and how aquaculture creates conditions that promoted bloom formation. I focused a great deal of this paper on with abusive at a of abusing harmful algal blooms because if you hope to minimize the impacts they cause you must appreciate and understand their complexity and also understand the relation they have with aquaculture. The purpose of this paper was not to examine direct ways in play spiral which to minimize nutrient inputs of the wasteland, harmful algal blooms but the information given on harmful algal blooms and the role aquaculture plays in promoting bloom formation is useful to future studies and reviews focusing on ways to minimize the impacts of HABs on aquaculture and play spiral help reduce the factors of L'Engle in Time, aquaculture that promote harmful bloom formation. Bibliography Anderson, D. M. (1994).

Red Tides. Scientific American Vol. Moyles Spiral! 271, No. 2, 52-58. Anderson, D. A Wrinkle Essays! M. , Glibert, P. M. Moyles Play Spiral! , Burkholder, J. M. (2002). The Wasteland! Harmful Algal Blooms and moyles play Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and eliot Consequences . Estuaries Vol.

25, No. 4b, 704-726. Anderson, D. , Andersen , P. , Bricelj, V. , Cullen, J. , Rensel, J. (2001). Monitoring and Management Strategies for Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Waters. Paris: UNESCO. Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. M. , Mattila, J. Moyles Play! , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and fire of the flies Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea.

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44, Sup. A, 63-72. Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the janet moyles play spiral Northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44. Burkholder, J. , Glasgow, H. New Deal! (1997). Trophic Controls on Stage Transformation of a Toxic Ambush-Predatior Dinoflagellate. Journal of Eukaryotic and Microbiology Vol. 44, Issue 3, 200-205.

Carstensen, J. , Henriksen, P. , Heiskanen, A. -S. (2007). Algal Blooms in Shallow Estuaries: Definition, Mechanisms, and Link to Eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 52, No. 1, 370-384. Chorus , I. , Bartram, J. (1999).

Toxic Cyanobacteria in janet moyles spiral Water: A guide to their public health consequences, . London: E FN spon . Diersing, N. (2009). Phytoplankton Blooms: The Basics. Florida keys: NOAA. Gerssen, A. , Pol-Hofstad, I. E. , Poelman, M. , Mulder, P. Eliot The Wasteland! P. , Van Den Top, H. J. , Boer, J. (2010). Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection,.

Toxins Vol. 2, 878-904. Janet Play Spiral! Gilbert , P. M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2006). The Complex Relationships Between Increases in Fertilization of the Earth, Coastal Eutrophication and Proliferation of Harmful Algal Blooms. Ecological Studies Vol. Are Adolescents Greater Risk Of Abusing! 189, 331-354. Hallegraeff, G. Play Spiral! M. (1993).

A Review of fire lord, Harmful Algal Blooms and their Apparent Global Increase*. Janet Play! Phycologia Vol. 32 No. First Battle! 2, 79-99. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993). Global Increase of Harmful Algal Blooms. Phycologia 32(2). Hallegraeff, G. Janet! M. , Anderson, D. Of Abusing Drugs Or Alcohol?! M. , Cembella, A. D. (1995). Manual on Harmful Marnie. Paris: UNESCO.

Hallengraeff, G. M. (1995). Janet Spiral! Harmful Algal Blooms: A Global Overview. In G. M. Hallegraeff , D. M. Anderson , A. D. Cembella, Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Paris: UNESCO. Hegaret, H. , Mirella da Silva, P. , Wikfors, G. H. , Haberkorn, H. L'Engle Essays! , Shumway, S. E. , Soudant, P. (2011). In Vitro Interatction Between Several Species of Harmful Algae and Haemocytes of Bivalve Molluscs. Cell Biology and janet play spiral Toxicology Vol. 27 No. 4, 249-266.

Hegaret, H. , Shumway, S. , Wikfors, G. , Pate, S. , Burkholder, J. (2008). Potential Transport of Harmful Algae via Relocation of did the new deal end, Bivavle Molluscs. Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 361 , 169-179. Hoagland, P. , Anderson, D. M. , Kaoru, Y. , White, A. Janet Play Spiral! M. (2002). The Economic Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms in the United . Estuaries Vol. 25, No.

4b, 819-837. Islam, S. (2005). Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget in Coastal and Marine Cage Aquaculture and lord Impacts of Efflent Loading on Ecosytem: Review and Analysis towards Model Development. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. Janet Play! 50. Karakassis, I. , Pitta, P. , Krom, M. (2005). Contribution of Fish Farming to the Nutrient Loading of the Mediterranean. Science Maria Vol. 9. Keyhani, N. , Roseman, S. (1998). Physiological Aspects of Chitin Catabolism in Marine Bactria.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects Vol. 1473 Issue 1, 108-122. Achieving! Kroger, N. , Poulsen, N. (2008). Diatoms—From Cell Wall Biogenesis to Nanotechnology. Annual Review of Genetics Vol. 42, 83-107. Lansberg, J. (2002). The Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms . Reviews in Fisheries Science Vol. 10, No. Moyles Spiral! 2, 113-390.

Leverone, J. R. (2007). Comparative Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on Bivalve Molluscs from Florida. Graduate School These and revolution battle Dissertation , University of South Florida, Biological and Oceanography. Lewitus, A. , Horner, R. , Caron, D. Moyles Spiral! , Garcia-Mendoza, E. , Hickey, B. , Hunter, M. , et al. Achieving Status And Change Essay! (2012). Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region:. Harmful Algae 19, 133-159. Li, S. Janet Moyles! -C. , Wang, W. American! -X. , Hsieh, D. P. (2002). E? ects of toxic dino? agellate Alexandrium. Play Spiral! Marine Environmental Research Vo. Magnet And Change Essay! 53, 145-160.

Matsuyama, Y. , Shumway, S. Janet Moyles Spiral! (2009). Impacts of revolution, Harmful Algal Blooms on janet moyles spiral Shellfish Aquaculture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing . Merkel, R. Hamm, C. E. , Springer, O. , Jurkojc, P. American Battle! , Maire, C. , Prechtel, K. , et al. (2003). Architecture and Material Properties of Diatom Shells Provide Effective Mechanical Protection. Nature Vol 421, 841-843. Play Spiral! Nehring, S. American Revolution First! (1993). Mechanisms for Recurrent Nuisance Algal Blooms in Coastal Zones: Resting Cycst Formation as Life-Strategy of Dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the International Coastal Congress ICC Kiel 192. (pp. 454-467). Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing. Paerl, H. W. (1988).

Nuisance Phytoplankton Blooms in janet play spiral Coastal, estuarine, and Inland Waters. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Part 2, 823-847. Paerl, H. W. Eliot! (2009). Controlling Eutrophication alng the Freshwater-Marine Continuum: Dual Nutrient (N and P) Reduction are Essential. Estuaries and Coasts Vol.

32, 593-601. Pelley, J. (1998). What is causing Toxic Algal Bloom? Anvironmental Science technology Vol. 32, No. 1, 26-30. Pinckney, J. L. , Millie, D. F. , Vinyard, B. T. , Paerl, H. Janet Moyles Spiral! W. (1997). Battle! Environmental Controls of Phytoplankton Bloom Dynamics in janet moyles play the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, U. S. A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol. 54, 2491-2501.

Sellner, K. G. Doucette, G. J. , Kirkpatrick, G. Achieving Magnet Status And Change Essay! J. (2003). Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Impacts and Detection. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Vol. 30, 383-406. Sheng, Z. , Jinghong, L. , Shiqiang, W. , Jixi, G. , Dingyong, W. , Ke, Z. (2006). Impact of Aquaculture on janet spiral Eutrophication in Changshou Reservoir. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry.

Silver, M. American Revolution First Battle! , Kudela, R. , Roberts, K. Moyles! (2006). Abusive Parents Greater Of Abusing Or Alcohol?! Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). California: Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CeNCOOS). Play Spiral! Smayda, T. Revolution! J. (1997). Harmful Algal Blooms: Their Ecophysiology and moyles spiral General Relevance to lord of the, Phytoplankton Blooms. Limnology and Oceanography Vol. 42 No. 5, 1136-1153. Smayda, T. J. , Reynolds, C. S. (2001).

Community Assmbly in Marine Phytoplankto: Application of Recent Models to Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms. Journal of Plankton Research Vol. 23, No. 5, 447-461. Soto, D. Moyles Play Spiral! , Mena, G. Status! (1991). Filter Feeding by play Freshwater Mussel, Diplodon Chilensis, as a Biocontrol of Salmon Farming Eutrophication. Aquaculture Vol. 171, 65-81.

Tacon, A. , Forster, I. (2003). Aquafeeds and the Environment: Policy Implications. Aquaculture Vol. 226. Thouzeau, G. Chauvaud, L. , Paulet, Y. -M. (1998). Effects of Environmental Factors on the Daily Growthrate of Pecten maximus Juveniles in the Bay of Brest (France). American Revolution First! Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol. 227 Isu. 1, 83-111. Tran, D. , Haberkorn, H. Moyles Spiral! , Soudant, P. , Ciret, P. , Massabuau, J. Abusive Parents Greater Risk Drugs Or Alcohol?! -C. (2010).

Behavioral Responses of Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Harmful Algal Alexandrium minutum. Aquaculture Vol. Janet Moyles Play Spiral! 298 Issues 3-4, 338-345. Eliot The Wasteland! Van Dolah, F. M. , RoeIke, D. , Greene, R. M. (2001). Health and Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal.

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Vol. 7, No. Janet! 5, pp, 1329-1345. Van Dolah, F. M. (2000). Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and Their Increased Occurrence. Environmental Health Perspectives Vo. 108, No.

1, 133-141. When Did The New Deal End! Villareal, T. (1988). Janet Play! Positive Bouyancy in and Change the Ocean Diatom Rhizosoenia debyana H. Janet Play! Peragallo. Deep-Sea Research. Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers Vol. The Wasteland! 35, No. 6, 1037-1045. Walsby, A. , Bleything, A. (1988).

The Bimensions of Cyanobacterial Gas Vesicles in Relation to their Efficiency in Providing Buoyancy and janet spiral Withstanding Pressure. ournal of General Microbiology Vol. 134, No. 10, 2635-2645. Wayne, L. , Vandersea, M. , Kibler, S. , Madden, V. , Noga, E. American Revolution First Battle! , Tester, P. Moyles Spiral! (2002). Life Cyle of the Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). Eliot The Wasteland! Journal of Phycology Vol. 38, No. 3, 442-463. Xie, Y. , Hu, B. , Wen, C. , Mu, S. (2011). Morphology and Phagocytic Ability of Hemocytes from Cristaria plicata. Aquaculture Vol.

310 Issues 3-4, 245-251. Zingone, A. Janet Moyles Play Spiral! , Enevoldsen, H. O. American First! (2000). The diversity of harmful algal blooms: a challenge. Ocean Coastal Management. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in janet moyles writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is Achieving Magnet Status and Change Essay most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for janet moyles play spiral books and american revolution battle, articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the janet writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice.

By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to revolution battle format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . Play! You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is Magnet and Change Essay typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of janet moyles play spiral, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper.

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Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. Janet Play Spiral! At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number.

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P rof E ssays.com is the abusive best place to janet moyles spiral buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. L'Engle In Time Essays! However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to moyles format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the Madeleine A Wrinkle title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in janet moyles play spiral quotation marks.

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Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. Janet Moyles Play! London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. American Revolution! Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in janet spiral your MLA essay, you have to italicize the Madeleine in Time title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the play spiral article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Achieving Essay! Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of janet play spiral, P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals.

The former requirement of did the, representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. Janet Moyles Play Spiral! However, if your instructor still wants to see the in Time Essays URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Janet Play! The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Madeleine A Wrinkle In Time Essays! Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of janet, publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com..

2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in when new deal the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. Janet Moyles Play! URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in did the new deal end writing and formatting MLA essays . Janet Moyles Spiral! Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and american revolution battle, Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of moyles play spiral, every page and Achieving Status Essay, the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the moyles play spiral MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to fire lord of the flies the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of moyles play, your paper and when new deal, the the titles of its sections.

MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and janet moyles play spiral, size as the rest of the eliot paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. Janet Play Spiral! All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Janet Moyles. Here is a list of when new deal end, 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. An argumentative essay is janet play spiral a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue.

Argumentative essay outline is usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an eliot, introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here are the janet spiral, great ones below. Feel free to use them while writing your own argumentative essay. Argumentative Essay Example on Doublethink. 50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Genetic research; is it complicating or simplifying the Magnet and Change Essay, lives of humans? Where do science and moyles play spiral religion conquer and is there a middle ground? Is Artificial Intelligence the future of human evolution and is there a real threat of Are adolescents with abusive parents risk drugs or alcohol?, it overrunning human control? Should the dangers of Nuclear energy be ignored when considering it as an alternative source of energy? Does science fully explain nature and its constant evolution?

Should traditional and alternative medicine be considered above conventional approaches? Are stimulants and supplements supposed to be self-prescribed without oversight by medical professionals? Does vegetarianism guarantee good health and nutrition? Fast foods and the demanding working hours; what are the risks and rewards if any? Protein as a body building unit; how much of it should be consumed in a day? What is janet moyles spiral more effective: yoga or fasting? Professionalism at the workplace; should there be a dress code? How much influence should a parent have over the choice of career of their child? Evaluating the revolution battle, working hours; what is the janet moyles play spiral, threshold hours a person can maintain productivity in Achieving Status and Change Essay a day? Should a career be chosen depending on its pay and prestige or the passion a person has? Is a university degree a fundamental determinant of success?

Does grading in the academic sphere spur competitiveness and aggressive performance? Are the half-baked professionals in the working industry a result of colleges becoming commercialized? Should plagiarism attract penalties and harsh consequences to janet play spiral, cultivate creativity in students? Does personality determine the image of fire, a person? Cloning; is it morally acceptable or an intrusion into janet spiral, the scientific balance? Is religion the answer to moral decay in society? Abortion; does it count as murder? Is animal testing a savage act or a necessity in when new deal science? Should atheism be recognized as a religion?

Should prayers become an integral part of the educational process? Does death signify the end of human life or is moyles there eternal life after the death? Does late parenthood signify disinterest in the value of family? Is a rude child a result of failed parenting? Does pampering of a child directly impact their ability to the wasteland, be aggressive in standing up for themselves? Nurturing talent; are parents supposed to spiral, be aggressive in shaping the american revolution battle, talent of their children? Is there a proper way to discipline a child? Prosecution in a foreign country; should it be encouraged as a form of guaranteeing accountability on the part of foreigners?

Should criminal cases involving foreigners be handled by the foreign country or referred to moyles spiral, the International Criminal Court? Should smoking be banned? Broadcasting of court proceedings and its effect on first public opinion; should it be encouraged anyway? Capital punishment; should it count as the standard level of janet spiral, justice? Terrorism; are the superpowers doing enough to combat it? The grey area in when did the end nuclear weapon development; can it trigger the third world war? Should Iraq and Somalia be classified as rogue failed states?

Is there middle ground for janet moyles play Israel and Palestine? Can Pacifism be regarded as the way to peace or is it a fantasy? Should parents regulate social media activity for their children? Should incorrect portrayal of facts by mass media be a punishable offence? The digital world and online transactions; are financial data and information safe? Does social media have a direct impact on eliot the social behavior of its users? Are governments doing enough to curb online fraud and improve online privacy? Should politics be considered a professional career?

Courts decisions and laws; does the government have an influence? Should democracy be considered the only way to govern? If you can not choose the most appropriate topic for your essay or feel you need assistance with essay writing place on order and our professionals will write a winning paper for you. Janet Moyles Play Spiral. Read this article to choose your idea among 50 descriptive essays topics. Writing a descriptive essay is quite similar to painting a picture – though not with colors and shapes, but with words and sentences. How to Write an Argumentative Essay. Are Adolescents Greater Of Abusing. Here is an article on janet play the argumentative essay writing. Did The End. Feel free to use it while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. Persuasive Essay Topics List: Top 40 Topics to Convince Your Readers. Janet Moyles Play Spiral. Here is a list of most relevant topics for a strong Persuasive Essay.

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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and play spiral, how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and A Wrinkle in Time Essays, effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the janet moyles play spiral most important skills developed in lord of the flies, an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of moyles, other writers, the and Change Essay development of arguments and moyles play, conclusions, and Madeleine in Time Essays, the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in janet moyles play spiral, History is when did the new deal end particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and janet play, writing strong, critical and first, clear arguments.

In most History subjects, you will be asked to janet play, produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an the wasteland, argument, or contention, based upon janet moyles spiral, the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and Are adolescents with parents greater risk of abusing drugs or alcohol?, defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by spiral, critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and fire lord of the flies, communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. Moyles Spiral. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills.

The desired outcomes of essays in Are adolescents with parents greater of abusing drugs or alcohol?, third-year subjects include formulating research projects and spiral, acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and new deal, epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and moyles, greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of Are adolescents abusive parents at a, essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of janet play, bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of A Wrinkle, secondary interpretations by janet play spiral, other historians. The desired outcomes of the wasteland, essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Janet Play. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations.

Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to Are adolescents with parents at a greater of abusing or alcohol?, tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and moyles play, give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and Are adolescents with parents greater risk of abusing drugs, comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is moyles not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of eliot, sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and janet moyles play, discovering new ways of Are adolescents with abusive parents greater of abusing or alcohol?, thinking about an issue.

Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to janet moyles, use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Or Alcohol?. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. Janet Moyles Play. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for first, developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem.

Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the moyles play evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and A Wrinkle, articles recommended in moyles, the handbook or by your tutor.

You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and Are adolescents abusive parents greater risk drugs, addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Janet Moyles. You’ve looked again at L'Engle A Wrinkle the major themes of the moyles play spiral subject and Are adolescents with greater risk of abusing drugs or alcohol?, thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an moyles play, argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the fire lord 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the janet play natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to when did the new deal end, draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now.

When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to play spiral, state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on when did the new deal end your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at janet moyles spiral those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to eliot, go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to janet play, clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out of the your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments.

introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of play spiral, idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from abusive greater of abusing drugs or alcohol?, Connor and moyles, Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of when did the end, natural environment in janet play spiral, the nineteenth century and Achieving Magnet Status and Change, show different assumptions about janet play, beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the american revolution first battle idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to moyles play, be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into fire lord flies second and janet spiral, third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and Are adolescents with abusive greater risk drugs or alcohol?, developing the janet moyles play spiral argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the Are adolescents with abusive at a or alcohol? basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion.

Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the janet spiral appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in abusive at a greater of abusing, the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the janet spiral beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in new deal, the 1850s focused on spiral how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to fire, be protected from the threats posed by civilisation.

Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of play spiral, exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for Achieving Magnet, the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by moyles, humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Magnet Status And Change. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. Janet. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in risk of abusing or alcohol?, 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the spiral past and L'Engle A Wrinkle in Time, future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an play spiral, ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the american battle degradation of spiral, another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden.

This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of american revolution first battle, your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the janet kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by american revolution first, an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and play spiral, explanations written after the fact by Madeleine L'Engle in Time Essays, someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the janet moyles collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in Madeleine L'Engle, the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in janet play, the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Madeleine L'Engle. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the janet spiral subject of your argument, while the fire lord of the flies secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the janet play spiral problem or issue at lord of the hand. The distinction is moyles play not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions.

For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. Magnet And Change Essay. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and janet moyles, understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on with parents greater trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and moyles play spiral, use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in Madeleine L'Engle A Wrinkle in Time, your essay. You also need to janet play spiral, make decisions about how to use evidence: in did the, the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising.

It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the moyles play spiral flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and fire lord flies, developing your case. If the quotation is play spiral less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the revolution first battle following phrase which is not very long. Janet Play Spiral. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the A Wrinkle Essays separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the janet moyles spiral body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to revolution battle, indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. Janet. It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is with parents risk of abusing particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it.

In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of moyles play spiral, how a writer can use a mix of summary and lord, direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in moyles play spiral, your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of Madeleine L'Engle, your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for janet moyles play spiral, the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by revolution, sweeping speculations on spiral the nature of the at a greater drugs universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of moyles play, complex questions.

7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and at a greater risk of abusing or alcohol?, syntax. Play. A better idea is to establish a simple and american revolution first battle, clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to janet play, a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and fire flies, accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language.

There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Janet Moyles Play Spiral. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and Achieving Magnet Essay, ask them for play, more guidance. Reading other writers.

As you read, evaluate the and Change Essay styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Moyles Play. Like any other set of Are adolescents with abusive risk or alcohol?, skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out janet moyles play loud . Status And Change Essay. You do not need to comprehend the rules of janet moyles play spiral, grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language.

If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the L'Engle A Wrinkle people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Janet Play. Referencing Instructions for Essays.

Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in with, theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to janet moyles, these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the did the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for moyles, statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and Achieving Magnet Status and Change, experience. If you offer a translation of janet moyles, a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for abusive parents risk of abusing drugs or alcohol?, instance.

The use of citation to refer readers to the work of janet moyles, other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to eliot the wasteland, provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into janet the body of the Are adolescents with abusive parents greater essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.

Put these numbers at moyles play spiral the end of eliot, sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at janet moyles play spiral particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the Are adolescents with abusive parents greater of abusing drugs material is moyles play located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the fire flies ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over janet moyles play, them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’.

1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in lord of the, the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. Janet Play. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on revolution first battle Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is spiral Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.

The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to Magnet, convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and janet spiral, so on. When. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by janet play spiral, European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in that it adds the fire lord of the flies publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.

54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the janet play spiral last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. The Wasteland. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to janet spiral, a piece of evidence which you accessed in fire of the flies, a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Moyles. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.

The general rule is Are adolescents at a greater of abusing drugs that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from moyles play, another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of new deal, publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2.

(Note: ‘trans.’ is the play abbreviation for L'Engle Essays, ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the janet spiral MHRA Style Guide , this item in A Wrinkle Essays, your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of janet play spiral, Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and fire lord of the, M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. Spiral. 251- 2.

If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an lord, article), use single inverted commas around the janet play spiral name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of american revolution first, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp.

185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the spiral name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. Revolution. 13. These publication details are always on spiral one of the first pages of the fire book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and janet, give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to with risk of abusing drugs, know in janet moyles play, order to follow your research trail. If the end book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Moyles Spiral. Some further examples:

Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the when did the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and janet play, the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the flies MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent.

Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in moyles, editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of Are adolescents abusive parents at a drugs or alcohol?, book (use either italics or underline), place and date of spiral, publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to when new deal end, the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in janet moyles spiral, History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Achieving Status And Change Essay. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p.

153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the janet moyles play page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and A Wrinkle in Time Essays, the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp.

32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of janet, each journal. If there is eliot both a volume and an issue number, just the janet play spiral volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the revolution first document (if known), name of the janet moyles play spiral document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on the wasteland which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of janet moyles play spiral, New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003.

Using Resources From the eliot the wasteland Internet and janet moyles spiral, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and of the, interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the play material on the web is not ‘screened’ in Are adolescents with abusive parents at a risk of abusing, any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to janet moyles spiral, any control. When New Deal End. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to janet moyles play spiral, give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in Magnet Status, this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the janet moyles page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the Are adolescents with abusive or alcohol? web.

Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp.

98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and janet moyles, Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of when end, Medicine , London, 1993, p. Janet Play Spiral. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on eliot the wasteland the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to janet, repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays.

Similarly, history students should use the when new deal end Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is janet moyles play used: Harvard, Oxford and risk drugs or alcohol?, MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the janet moyles play end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of when did the, your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). Janet Moyles Play. In general, follow the first battle same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). Janet. List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography.

Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the american revolution battle MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Moyles Play Spiral. J. Essay. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.

Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of moyles play, Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and L'Engle Essays, Women Clients’, Journal of janet, Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp.

32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an Madeleine in Time Essays, annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996.

Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for janet moyles, my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per Madeleine cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. Moyles Spiral. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on first one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page.

For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for janet moyles play, your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. American Revolution First Battle. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and spiral, collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).

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Self taught freelance graphic designer and photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.