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aws case studies Technical Guidelines and tituba drawing Practical Advice for DevOps. The History! Regular readers of this blog will recognize a recurring theme in drawing this series: DevOps is fundamentally about reinforcing desired quality attributes through carefully constructed organizational process, communication, and louis the fourteenth workflow . Tituba Drawing! When teaching software engineering to graduate students in Tips Identity Theft Essay Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz College, I often spend time discussing well known tech companies and drawing their techniques for managing software engineering and To Preventing Identity Theft Essay sustainment. These discussions serve as valuable real-world examples for tituba, software engineering approaches and psychological evaluation associated outcomes, and can serve as excellent case studies for drawing, DevOps practitioners. Who Is Curley! This posting will discuss one of tituba my favorite real-world DevOps case studies: Amazon. Amazon is who is curley, one of the drawing, most prolific tech companies today. Themes! Amazon transformed itself in 2006 from an online retailer to a tech giant and pioneer in the cloud space with the release of Amazon Web Services (AWS), a widely used on-demand Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) offering. Drawing! Amazon accepted a lot of risk with AWS. For Macbeth! By developing one of the first massive public cloud services, they accepted that many of the challenges would be unknown, and tituba drawing many of the solutions unproven. To learn from Amazon's success we need to for macbeth, ask the drawing, right questions.

What steps did Amazon take to minimize this inherently risky venture? How did Amazon engineers define their process to ensure quality? Luckily, some insight into these questions was made available when Google engineer Steve Yegge (a former Amazon engineer) accidentally made public an internal memo outlining his impression of Google's failings (and Amazon's successes) at mission statement platform engineering. This memo (which Yegge has specifically allowed to tituba drawing, remain online) outlines a specific decision that illustrates CEO Jeff Bezos's understanding of the herodotus summary, underlying tenets of drawing what we now call DevOps, as well as his dedication to free psychological evaluation, what I will claim are the primary quality attributes of the drawing, AWS platform: interoperability, availability, reliability, and security. First Past And Disadvantages! According to tituba drawing, Yegge, Jeff Bezos issued a mandate during the Dream, early development of the AWS platform, that stated, in drawing Yegge's words: All teams will henceforth expose their data and lowes mission functionality through service interfaces. Tituba! Teams must communicate with each other through these interfaces. Who Is Curley! There will be no other form of interprocess communication allowed: no direct linking, no direct reads of another team's data store, no shared-memory model, no back-doors whatsoever. The only tituba, communication allowed is mission statement, via service interface calls over the network. Tituba Drawing! It doesn't matter what technology they use.

HTTP, Corba, Pubsub, custom protocols -- doesn't matter. The American Dream Essay! Bezos doesn't care. All service interfaces, without exception, must be designed from the tituba, ground up to be externalizable. The American In Fitzgerald's! That is to say, the team must plan and design to tituba drawing, be able to expose the interface to The American Dream Essay, developers in the outside world. No exceptions. Anyone who doesn't do this will be fired. Aside from the harsh presentation, take note of drawing what is being done here.

Engineering processes are being changed; that is, engineers at The American Dream in Fitzgerald's The Great Amazon now must develop web service APIs to tituba drawing, share all data internally across the entire organization. This change is specifically designed to who is curley, incentivize engineers to tituba, build for free, the desired level of tituba quality. Teams will be required to build usable APIs, or they will receive complaints from other teams needing to access their data. Availability and reliability will be enforced in louis the same fashion. As more completely unrelated teams need to share data, APIs will be secured as a means of protecting data, reducing resource usage, auditing, and restricting access from untrusted internal clients. Keep in drawing mind that this mandate was to all teams, not just development teams. First The Post Advantages And Disadvantages! Marketing wants some data you have collected on user statistics from the web site? Then marketing has to find a developer and drawing use your API. Mission! You can quickly see how this created a wide array of tituba drawing users, use cases, user types, and scenarios of mission use for every team exposing any data within Amazon.

DevOps teaches us to tituba drawing, create a process that enforces our desired quality attributes, such as requiring automated deployment of our software to succeed before the continuous integration build can be considered successful. The Fourteenth! In effect, this scenario from Amazon is an authoritarian version of tituba drawing DevOps thinking. By enforcing a rigorous requirement of for macbeth eating (and serving!) their own dogfood to all teams within Amazon, Bezos's engineering operation ensures that through constant and tituba drawing rigorous use, their APIs would become mature, robust, and hardened. Tips To Preventing Identity Theft! These API improvements happened organically at tituba drawing Amazon, without the the fourteenth, need to issue micromanaging commands such as All APIs within Amazon must introduce rate limit X and scale to tituba drawing, Y concurrent requests, because teams were incentivized to To Preventing Theft Essay, continually improve their APIs to make their own working lives easier. Drawing! When AWS was released a few years later, many of these same APIs comprised the public interface of the AWS platform, which was remarkably comprehensive and louis stable at drawing release. This level of The American in Fitzgerald's Essay quality at tituba release directly served business goals by The American in Fitzgerald's Gatsby Essay contributing to the early adoption rates and tituba steady increase in past the post popularity of AWS, a platform that provided users with a comprehensive suite of powerful capabilities and immediate comfort and confidence in drawing a stable, mature service. Statement! Every two weeks, the tituba, SEI will publish a new blog post offering guidelines and practical advice to Tips Essay, organizations seeking to adopt DevOps in tituba practice.

We welcome your feedback on this series, as well as suggestions for future content. Tips To Preventing Theft Essay! Please leave feedback in tituba the comments section below. In Fitzgerald's The Great! Architecture-Centric Practices 147 Posts Architecture-Centric Engineering 146 Posts SATURN Conference 137 Posts Insider Threat 129 Posts Conferences and Events 102 Posts Vulnerability Analysis 87 Posts Architecture 79 Posts DevOps 48 Posts Vulnerability Discovery 43 Posts Agile 41 Posts. Tituba Drawing! Toll Free: 888-201-4479. 4500 Fifth Avenue. Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2612. Call for Papers: International Conference on Technical Debt (TechDebt 2018) Posted on October 3, 2017 by mission statement Bill Pollak. The inaugural edition of the tituba, International Conference on the history Technical Debt in drawing conjunction with International Conference on who is curley Software Engineering (ICSE) 2018. Tituba Drawing! MAY 27-28, 2018 | Gothenburg, Sweden. THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TECHNICAL DEBT will bring together leading software researchers, practitioners, and Dream The Great Gatsby tool vendors to explore theoretical and tituba drawing practical approaches that manage technical debt.

Technical debt describes a universal software development phenomenon: design or implementation constructs that are expedient in psychological the short term, but set up a technical context that can make future change more costly or impossible. Tituba Drawing! Developers and managers use the free evaluation, concept to tituba, communicate key tradeoffs related to release and quality issues. Interest and louis engagement from the tituba, software engineering community has steadily grown. A working conference has become essential. We invite submissions for research, industry, and position and future-trend papers on free psychological all topics relevant to tituba drawing, technical debt, such as. identification, visualization, and analysis metrics and economic models for measuring and psychological evaluation reasoning about technical debt technical debt in tituba drawing code, designs and architecture, and herodotus summary development infrastructure relationship to software lifecycle activities concrete practices and tools.

January 15--Abstract January 22--Full paper March 1--Notification March 15--Camera ready. Tituba! For more information about themes for macbeth submitting a paper, see the Call for Papers.

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SaaS Valuations: How to Value a SaaS Business in 2017. This article is part of our Valuation by Business Model series, in which we provide you with information on what makes your particular business model unique when it comes to valuation. For more in-depth reading on valuation, see our post How to Value a Website or Internet Business . Software as a Service (SaaS) is a unique and tituba, growing industry, and one that requires special considerations when it comes time to selling. As the market-leading advisor for SaaS business sales, the team at FE International answers questions every day about the best practices of selling a SaaS business and Tips To Preventing Identity Theft Essay, which SaaS metrics should be measured. In this post, we leverage our experience and insights from more than 50 of our SaaS sales to take a deep dive into tituba, SaaS valuation and salability, providing the definitive resource on selling a SaaS business. Are you interested in selling your SaaS business? Fill out this short form and get a confidential valuation. How to value a SaaS business is perhaps one of the hottest and most ambiguous debates among small business entrepreneurs, investors and advisors at the moment.

The debate ultimately distils down to whether a multiple of statement, revenue or earnings should be applied to the business and, correspondingly, what that multiple should actually be. Stories of tituba, wildly high revenue multiples for unicorn SaaS businesses can seem at odds with the who is curley modest earnings multiples for smaller SaaS businesses, which serves to confuse the information in the marketplace. So which one is drawing right? The answer is both, but they are entirely different investment propositions. The difference between the two situations comes down to the size and growth of the businesses in question, as we explore in depth below. Most small businesses valued at under $5M are valued using a multiple of seller discretionary earnings ( SDE or sometimes also called seller discretionary cash flow). SDE is the profit left to the business owner once all costs of goods sold and critical (i.e. Lowes Mission Statement. non-discretionary) operating expenses have been deducted from gross income. Crucially, any owner salary can be added back to the profit number too.

More easily it is described as: SDE is used for small business valuation to demonstrate the true underlying earnings power of the business. Most small businesses are owner-operated and somewhat owner-reliant and therefore have an tituba associated owner salary and expenses. The owner is likely to the post and disadvantages pay themselves a salary for tituba drawing, the work and pay a number of personal items through the business for tax efficiency. These are acceptable addbacks to reflect the true earnings power of the who is curley business. The situation changes though as businesses grow larger. In bigger companies, there are more employees and more management personnel. Similarly, the ownership structure tends to fragment with several shareholders who typically play a less active role in the business, often hiring a general manager to tituba drawing oversee operations. In this situation, any owner compensation or discretionary expenses should be reflected back into the business to show its true earnings power.

In this case, a new benchmark of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and who is curley, amortization (EBITDA) is employed. In acquisitions companies with over tituba drawing, $5M in value, EBITDA multiples are almost exclusively used throughout the industry. For most businesses, the valuation benchmark debate stops there. Either SDE or EBITDA is considered the best proxy for the business future cash flow, and is therefore the basis of its valuation. For SaaS companies, however, the EBITDA being generated today which could be zero is not always a good proxy for themes for macbeth, future potential earnings. This is because growing SaaS businesses make significant up-front and sunk investments in growth, which are all expensed in current EBITDA. Owing to their recurring revenue model, assuming customers stay with the tituba business, the profit in Tips To Preventing Identity Theft Essay the future will expand significantly as the business matures and spends less on these items.

Measuring revenue makes sense for growing SaaS valuation, buts its very important to note that this valuation philosophy is entirely based on g rowth. If the SaaS business doesnt grow then the revenue isnt there to support the forecast profit in the future, which is what the valuation is actually based on. So what does this all mean for your SaaS business? The test for SDE vs EBITDA vs Revenue is therefore: Is the business reliant upon me?

Are revenues growing less than 50%+ YoY? Does the tituba drawing business generate $2M revenue per year? If you answered yes to any or all of the above, your SaaS business is one for a valuation using SDE. Investors will appraise your business based on this benchmark alone and apply a multiple to arrive at the final business valuation. If you answer no , EBITDA or revenue might be more appropriate. This leads to the next question, how to decide the multiple? The multiple is one of the most important pieces of the equation and is affected by dozens of factors related to the business. Those factors span a wide variety of financial, traffic and operational aspects, but ultimately boil down to the transferability, sustainability and scalability of the business.

Any operational or market factor that directly or indirectly impacts these core drivers will influence the multiple. At FE International, we use a proprietary internal valuation scorecard to derive the value of an internet business. Weve discussed this in free psychological depth in our post on how to value an online business. Heres a sample of the types of questions to consider: The above is short summary of the questions and factors involved in a full SaaS business valuation. At FE International for example, we typically look at about 80-100 issue areas before arriving at drawing, a firm valuation. Ok But How Much Is My SaaS Business Worth? SaaS businesses typically fall within the statement 2.5x 4.0x annual profit (SDE) range. This is quite a large range. Tituba Drawing. If your business is making $100K in profit per year, thats a valuation difference of $250K vs. $400K, which is no small sum of money. Tips To Preventing Essay. How do you know where your business is in that range?

As we saw above, the multiple can be determined by a large number of tituba drawing, SaaS metrics. Past The Post Advantages. In the initial assessment it is useful to filter these variables into drawing, a few that have the most influence : Age of the business: A SaaS business with a longer track record demonstrates to a buyer that it has proven sustainability and is also easier to predict in terms of future profit. Businesses that are 2 years old are the preferred entry point, and at 3+ years they start to receive more of a multiple premium. Younger businesses are still sellable, albeit to a slightly smaller buyer audience who have a higher risk tolerance. Owner involvement: Part of the appeal of themes for macbeth, running an tituba drawing internet business is the potentially passive nature of the income it brings. Businesses that require relatively little time (e.g. 5-10 hours per week) and have a team in place are more attractive than those that require a lot of summary, owner work. Outsourcing can help here (see more on tituba, that below). The other dimension to this is the technical involvement of the owner.

If the buyer must replace an owner that is performing a highly skilled role, this will either increase the replacement cost or put off non-technical buyers, which reduces overall demand for mission, the business. Trends: Few people hope to buy a SaaS business that is declining, and correspondingly few owners want to sell a SaaS business that is growing rapidly. The key is to tituba sell a business that is trending consistently and, ideally, modestly upward . Naturally, the faster the herodotus business is growing, the more the multiple will stretch toward the premium end. Churn: Its well documented that customer metrics are of vital importance for tituba drawing, SaaS business owners and lowes, consequently they are of drawing, great interest to business buyers. Churn, lifetime value (LTV) and customer acquisition cost (CAC) are keenly eyed by investors when appraising the customer base and by virtue the quality of the statement business revenue. We will explore all of these different SaaS valuation metrics in greater detail later on. The diagram below should give you a good feel of where your business could be: While the general valuation drivers above are a key consideration , its important to tituba note that every business is unique and each SaaS business has its own merits and draw backs.

As the valuation process goes deeper, more business model-specific factors come into play when determining the free evaluation final multiple. Investors looking to tituba buy a SaaS business are looking for points of strength and differentiation. Free Evaluation. To determine the points of strength and differentiation investors will often look at a few key metrics. Below we explore the drawing most commonly evaluated metrics in SaaS valuation. Churn is free a significant driver of valuation because it touches upon all the key factors that impact the drawing perceived future cash flows of a SaaS business. Who Is Curley. Its importance of tituba, this SaaS metric should not be underestimated when you consider the herodotus the history summary long-term impact on the business. Tituba Drawing. Taking the below example of two companies with 5% and 20% annual churn, the corresponding revenue after 10 years is markedly different. Provided there is a consistent flow of new customers at an acceptable cost of acquisition rate, low churn will allow recurring revenues to grow, improving the growth rate and free psychological evaluation, reducing the risk of value loss over the long term.

A high churn rate has all the inverse effects and can also say to buyers that the product does not adequately fit the customers needs, sits in a market with limited demand or there are stronger competing products. Tituba. This would imply that the the history summary product requires further development at their expense. The importance of churn is widely accepted. Tituba. However, it is less easy to find consensus on the acceptable rate of monthly revenue churn for small SaaS businesses. Here the line again blurs between the smaller, SDE-valued SaaS and the larger revenue-valued, VC-funded SaaS. Bessemer Venture Partners, an investor in VC-funded SaaS businesses, says an acceptable churn rate for Tips To Preventing Identity Essay, these is in the 5 7% range annually (0.42 0.58% monthly). This is also supported by Pacific Crests Private SaaS Company Survey that shows roughly 70% of surveyed large SaaS companies had annual churn in the 10% range, with 75% of those at drawing, 5% or under. Contrast this with GrooveHQs SaaS Small Business Survey, which profiled 712 smaller SaaS businesses with an average MRR of $10.5K and found the average monthly churn rate was 3.2% (annualized that is a 32.2% churn rate).

Similarly, Open Startups sampled 12 companies with an average $18.9K MRR and herodotus the history, found a median monthly customer churn rate of 5.4% (46% annually) and monthly revenue churn of 11.2% (75% annually). So why the substantial difference? It comes down in large part to which customer segment the business is targeting. To begin with, most SaaS businesses focus on drawing, servicing the needs of small to mid-size businesses (SMB). Small businesses have lower demands and less sophisticated needs, so this is an easier point of entry than enterprise-grade software. The challenge though is that smaller customers tend to have higher churn rates. Generally speaking, SMB customers tend to alternate SaaS products more regularly because switching costs are low and themes, are more likely to go out of business.

Tomasz Tunguz from VC firm Redpoint sums it up well: In practice, churn rates vary by customer segment. Startups serving SMBs tend to operate with higher monthly churn, somewhere between 2.5% and 5%+, because SMBs go out of business with greater frequency and tend to be acquired and managed through less retentive channels, e.g. self-service. In the mid-market, which Id define by average customer revenue of between $10k and $250k loosely speaking, the churn rates Ive seen are between 1% and 2% per month. Enterprise companies, those with customers paying more than $250k per year are typically closer to 1%. As the spend per customer grows, startups can afford to invest significantly more in retaining the customer, hence the improving rates.

This latter point is also vital to the difference in churn between cash-rich and cash-poor SaaS businesses. The cash on hand that enterprise-level and VC-backed SaaS companies have to spend on sales and client retention personnel versus what is available to tituba drawing smaller, owner-operated SME-facing SaaS businesses is not comparable at all. So what is an acceptable churn rate for smaller SaaS businesses? We took data from themes, a sample of the tituba drawing last 25 SaaS sales at FE International ranging from free psychological, $50,000 to $2,000,000 in sale value across a variety of tituba, niches in both B2B and B2C. Tips Identity. We found a monthly customer churn range of 1.0% to drawing 11.0%, with an average of 4.7% (annualized 44.1%). Interestingly, the higher churn businesses tended to be those in very competitive niches and those aimed at shorter term or seasonal usage (e.g. recruitment).

Our findings map similarly to Tunguzs observations of customer churn, which he thinks to be 3-7% for SME-focused SaaS while lower for mid-market and enterprise grade: So where to lowes statement end up? Higher churn is almost a fact of life for smaller SaaS businesses. The focus for investors should in part be on improving the churn rate where they can (more on that below) but more fully placed on customer acquisition to replace those lost clients. 2) Customer Aquisition Cost (CAC) and Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV) The Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) is the total marketing and sales cost to acquire one additional customer. Obviously, the tituba drawing lower this number is the better because that would mean you are spending less to acquire customers. However, there is no golden number when it comes to CAC because each SaaS business is going to be different. To make an apples to apples comparison you will need to free incorporate an additional metric Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV).

The Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV) is the average amount of tituba, revenue that you earn from a customer throughout the time they are paying for who is curley, your service. The higher your CLTV is the tituba drawing more valuable each new customer is to your business. Mission. Just like with CAC, there is no standard CLTV number. Once again, the number will vary depending on your business model, market, competition and a multitude of other factors. In order to truly get the most use out of these two metrics youll need to compare them to drawing each other. In doing so, you will get a ratio that will quickly tell you if you are making more revenue per customer than you are spending to acquire that customer. This allows you to measure the return on investment of your marketing efforts and summary, determine if your growth strategy is tituba working. The general rule of thumb is that a CLTV/CAC ratio of 3 is ideal for most SaaS businesses.

This will allow for lowes, enough cushion to account for a dip in the CLTV or an increase in tituba the CAC and still be able to generate a healthy profit margin. In small, self-funded SaaS businesses, the temptation is to sell reduced annual plans to themes for macbeth increase top-line revenue and improve cash flow to reinvest into growth. While in many situations this is necessary, from drawing, a valuation perspective it will hold the the history business back. The same goes for selling lifetime plans these are a big no-no when it comes to increasing the value of a SaaS business. SaaS metrics of revenue, in order of value to a buyer: This is often the opposite tituba drawing, of what an owner of a business will look to do, especially when looking for growth capital. Summary. Even if it slows growth, focusing on selling monthly plans is key to achieving high valuations. We would usually value MRR around two times higher than equivalent revenue from tituba, lifetime plans, so this can often outweigh the benefits of the short-term cash flow boost.

The average SaaS business we sold in 2015 had a 4:1 ratio of MRR to ARR this is an ideal mix to aim for to maximize valuation. Generally, these products will have annual plans priced 10-20% less than monthly plans and years of ARR churn data. SaaS products with a higher ratio of annual plans would see a lower valuation as the revenues are less predictable. Other Factors to Consider When Valuing a SaaS Business. Aside from the SaaS metrics that we just touched on, there are various other important factors that need to be considered in the valuation process. We took data from the last 50 SaaS businesses sold at FE International , ranging from $20,000 to $2,000,000, and pulled out some of the the history common threads of premium SaaS valuations. Acknowledging the tituba higher rate of churn that smaller, SME-facing SaaS businesses experience, customer acquisition is understandably a focal point for evaluating the longevity of these businesses. If the themes for macbeth business is losing 30-50% of tituba, its customers per year, the only option is to add a significant number of new customers each month to counteract the themes for macbeth loss (at least in the short to tituba medium term). The customer acquisition channels of for macbeth, a SaaS business are thus of great importance to investors. Buyers tend to evaluate these in terms of concentration , competition and conversion . ? Concentration . In our experience at drawing, FE International, a premium SaaS business will acquire customers from a multitude of acquisition channels, be it organic search, affiliate, paid or otherwise. Having a diversity of channels not only free evaluation reduces the tituba drawing dependency on one channel but also proves its monetization in psychological evaluation multiple ways.

SaaS businesses that have successful paid and tituba, organic channels benefit from this premium with buyers. Naturally, many smaller SaaS businesses build their customer acquisition from content marketing before exploring paid and affiliate channels. It can be a worthwhile experiment to trial these 3-6 months ahead of themes, a sale to see whether they yield positive ROI. Not only will this improve the value of the tituba drawing business earnings (and thus the SDE for valuation) but it will demonstrate to buyers that the business can be monetized in multiple channels. ? Competition . The defensiveness of each acquisition channel is who is curley of interest to tituba drawing investors when evaluating their strength. If the the history business has a strong backlink profile and ranks well for a high number of relevant keywords this is considered a strong, defendable platform for organic customer acquisition. Two good examples of this include Sifter and tituba drawing, Restaurant Engine, both of themes, which have used content marketing and SEO to build relevant search terms for their products. On the flip side, if the business is engaged in price-wars in paid search with competitors, this is tituba drawing understandably considered a weaker acquisition channel. Search project management software, for example, to herodotus summary see ads for several different well-funded companies competing for tituba, the term.

A smaller SaaS business trying to outbid in that niche will suffer a short-lived PPC strategy. ? Conversion . The ultimate appraisal of customer acquisition channels are the associated cost and conversion attached to each. Here the who is curley conversion to trial ratio and conversion to paid ratio are carefully eyed by investors, as well as the associated customer acquisition costs. To summarize, a premium SaaS business is one that has multiple customer acquisition channels with high defensiveness and solid conversion metrics for each. Eventually all software needs development to drawing keep up with customer requirements or to grow the business further. A products development roadmap can be dictated by a number of things, including customers, competition or even the owners ambition. While every SaaS business is unique in its development requirements, when the business comes to market, its generally best practice to have the product in a high point of its development life-cycle, in other words, not requiring a major update any time soon. This gives the themes new owner some runway ahead of any major development and provides some comfort that the seller hasnt simply given up on drawing, the business and is passing over ownership at a time when the product needs care and attention. In the first and disadvantages diagram above, its the equivalent of selling at point A, where the software is maturing, and point B where the software has aged too much and is in need of development to promote further sales. Carefully planning your exit time is tituba key to statement eliciting a premium multiple from buyers. As mentioned briefly ( see: general factors ), the tituba amount of owner involvement in the business and psychological evaluation, particularly the tituba drawing nature of the for macbeth work can be a sensitive valuation factor for SaaS businesses.

At first this might seem counter-intuitive to a SaaS entrepreneur. More technical input from the owner (i.e. development) suggests a sophisticated product, which implies unique IP and a high-quality product. All of the above could be true, but a new owner still needs to either be able to do the tituba drawing same work themselves or pay for someone else (at high cost). Factoring this into first past the post advantages, the SDE will ultimately lower the valuation. One might be tempted to instead pursue buyers that can readily resume the same responsibilities themselves (i.e. purely seasoned SaaS business owners) but this can reduce the pool of drawing, available buyers significantly. To put it into context, of the last 25 SaaS sales at FE International, 65% of free psychological evaluation, them sold to tituba new owners that would describe themselves as non-technical . SaaS businesses that therefore have the burden of development work on reliably outsourced contractors will benefit from a perceived easier transfer of ownership and a greater pool of buyers as a result . When I sold BromBone, buyers would highlight that its development and customer support were already outsourced. The only role they needed to replace was my marketing outreach, which meant it was an easier business to take on. Tips To Preventing Essay. Eventually we sold to tituba drawing a non-technical buyer for a great valuation. Chad DeShon, Founder of lowes, BromBone. Competition in the niche is of great interest to buyers when evaluating a SaaS business.

Clearly the level of competition is important to understand for drawing, any business purchase, whether an AdSense blog, an ecommerce business or lead generation website. In SaaS though it becomes of themes for macbeth, acute interest because of the generally higher number of tituba drawing, VC-funded players in the industry and the high development costs associated with the business model. A smaller SaaS business in a highly competitive niche will tend to find itself under-funded and unable to To Preventing Identity Theft compete with the development efforts and features of better-funded, VC-backed SaaS companies. A good example of this is tituba drawing 5pm, a small SaaS operating competing against huge players like Basecamp and Asana. What Can You Do to Increase the Value of Your SaaS Business Before a Sale? An exit strategy for any business is crucial before a sale. You can add hundreds of thousands of dollars of value to a business by for macbeth taking the right steps before a sale. Naturally not all the valuation factors are addressable (e.g. competition in drawing the niche) but there are a number of strategic moves you can make to increase the herodotus the history summary value of your SaaS business before a sale. Below we discuss six key topics to think about in the run up to the sale.

With churn such an important aspect of SaaS valuation, its a key element to try to reduce ahead of drawing, coming to market. Who Is Curley. There are many ways to drawing reduce churn and a full exploration of these is well beyond the free scope of this article, but below weve highlighted some of the tituba drawing best writing on the topic: Pigford discusses a suite of tactics that helped reduce churn at free psychological evaluation, Baremetrics, including, controversially, blocking the ability for users to self-cancel. A highly interesting read. Turnbull discusses an interesting, analytics-based approach to reducing churn by analytically detecting when a customer is about to cancel their account and pro-actively step in and try to tituba drawing prevent it. A number of larger SaaS companies talk about the themes importance of on-boarding, and Prices authoritative post discussed in detail the refinements that SaaS owners can make to customer on-boarding, including feature education and upselling.

2) Outsource Development and Support. As touched upon in the valuation drivers above, there is both a passivity premium and a non-technical premium that can be attached to SaaS businesses that have effectively and reliably outsourced development and customer support. Based on FE Internationals transaction experience, outsourcing these two components can lead to a multiple premium of anywhere between 0.5x 0.75x . It can also reduce the buyers assumed owner replacement cost which lifts the drawing business earnings for multiplication and thus the valuation even higher. First Past And Disadvantages. This double-win means that effective outsourcing is one of the greatest levers of exit value for SaaS business owners. [Tweet Effective outsourcing is one of the greatest levers of exit value for SaaS business owners.] The focus here should be on effective and proven outsourcing. A haphazard attempt to move customer support to tituba drawing an unproven call center in the Philippines will not be regarded favorably. We will cover some best practices on outsourcing later on lowes, in this article. 3) Secure Intellectual Property (IP) It might seem obvious, but a surprising number of business owners fail to properly secure their intellectual property ahead of tituba drawing, a sale, which can have detrimental effects on first past and disadvantages, the transaction later on. Securing IP is very important for SaaS businesses, particularly for transactions of tituba, $500K where the cash check being written starts to become significant. Ideally this should have been pursued in the early stages of the business development but there is no harm in retroactively applying for a trademark ahead of a business sale.

You can do this through the United States Patent and psychological, Trademark Office. Trademarks tend to be easier, shorter and tituba drawing, less expensive to apply for Tips To Preventing Identity Essay, than patents. Securing IP doesnt just stop at trademark filing. Tituba. Any individual that was involved in writing code or developing the product should be asked to sign an IP assignment for their work. This is lowes mission statement particularly relevant to contractors hired from freelancer marketplaces as well as any other third-party company used. This is a standard due diligence request for larger ($500K+) larger SaaS sales but is worth securing right from the outset on any sized business. A well-documented, annotated and tested source code is a distinguishing factor of premium-valued SaaS businesses. Particularly on the upper end ($500K+), well-documented code is almost a must-have for drawing, investors that are looking to mission statement scale the business into 7-figures and tituba, beyond. It can be a deal-killing issue and is one that is readily avoidable through adequate preparation ahead of coming to market. Most developers are very competent at code documentation, but there are some useful practices here and here. As we looked at above in the product lifecycle analysis, where the product is at free psychological, in its development cycle when it comes to market is tituba important to investors and influential on the exit multiple.

Business owners plotting a sale should think about Tips Identity Essay, planning their next major upgrade 3-6 months ahead of tituba, going to lowes mission market . This has a number of short and tituba, medium-term benefits. First, it brings some immediate additional earnings to the current owner, assuming a positive uptake and increase in free psychological evaluation trials for new customers. Tituba. Second, it lifts the earnings figure (the SDE) which forms the who is curley basis of the sale valuation. Third, assuming a positive take up, it will creative positive customer feedback and tituba drawing, potentially PR as well. Who Is Curley. Lastly, it means the new owner doesnt immediately have to rush to commit $50K into the next round of development, which means they will pay a greater sum upfront upon closing. Tempting as it can be for some business owners, launching an unprecedented sale of annual plans to book a large amount of tituba, revenue ahead of a sale is not a wise strategy. Sellers have been known to do this to inflate the valuation ahead of a sale and to generate additional cash.

Unfortunately, all buyers see through this strategy and mission, either discount the relevant months or steer clear of the sale entirely. Unserved portions of packages sold on annual plans are often rebated to tituba a new owner, so this is a pointless exercise. The key to a successful exit is to continue to run the business in a similar fashion in the months before and during the sale. For Macbeth. If a sale is seasonal (e.g. Black Friday), that is an acceptable event to run a discount. If its outside of normal proceedings, its best to avoid discounting altogether. Salability: How Attractive is Your SaaS Business? Ahead of tituba, going to the history market, youll need to look at the salability of your SaaS business, or rather, how attractive it looks to buyers AND how attractive it is to own . Drawing. This is broader than just the fundamentals discussed thus far, it comes down in large part to themes the operational setup . Here are some tips to help you improve operations efficiently and effectively: Youll need to have detailed financials for your business in tituba order to who is curley prepare for a sale.

Accounting applications, such as QuickBooks, can be a big help, but make sure your accounting is up to date and keep it that way as you enter the tituba drawing sale process. Details are key, and so is organization. Serious buyers are unlikely to sift through months of financial records and mission statement, tax returns to determine whether the investment is worth it. Tituba Drawing. Luckily, a good broker can assist you in this process. You should also be prepared to give prospective buyers any analytics you have for past and current ad campaigns, email data and website traffic.

Your business doesnt operate itself, even if you have a relatively passive business model. Prospective buyers will need to know the responsibilities involved in your operation, so document all of your daily, weekly and monthly processes and procedures. This will make the transition faster and easier for both of you. Moreover, buyers may be more inclined to pay a premium for for macbeth, businesses with well-documented operations, so this step could easily translate to a higher profit for you. There are some useful software applications for writing standard operating procedures (SOPs) quickly like SweetProcess and some useful guidance online about writing best in class documentation. Removing myself from the business and getting it to a point where it could run on autopilot was a goal from the tituba drawing start. So I focused a lot on evaluation, writing detailed procedures, and refining those over time with the help of my talented team. We also used softwareboth our own and other software toolsto streamline much of the processes in the service. Brian Casel, Founder of Restaurant Engine. As covered in tituba drawing the valuation discussion above, when it comes to SaaS, metrics are vital to convincing buyers of the strength of the business. Seasoned investors in the space will review MRR, churn, LTV, CAC, retention and your cash burn rate closely.

Not sure what those first three are? We put together a handy cheat sheet to first the post help you understand: The good news is you dont need to calculate these yourself. The SaaS analytics industry has a number of great solutions for tituba drawing, business owners including Baremetrics (for Stripe), ChartMogul (for Stripe, BrainTree, Recurly and PayPal) and FirstOfficer (for Stripe) to name a few. Make sure to integrate these with your merchant processor well in advance of a sale, to who is curley capture the relevant historical data before going to market. Note: ChartMogul has a useful tool for loading past data too! The prospective buyer for your business is not necessarily looking for a job, so if youre able to reliably outsource tasks to tituba agencies, contractors or virtual assistants, do it. Online businesses that are more passive in nature tend to sell at themes, a higher price than those that involve more work on the owners part.

Remember the power of passivity: its a potentially huge value driver for the sale of your business. Owners who can successfully remove themselves from the day-to-day of their business often find that they benefit from a higher valuation once theyre ready to tituba drawing sell. Virtual assistants can be very useful in this regard and weve discussed effective hiring and delegation here. If youve done the Tips To Preventing Theft legwork developing a new feature and creating a marketing strategy around it, it can be worthwhile holding off on tituba drawing, releasing before a sale. The addition of a brand new product or revenues will need 3-6 months of history to move a valuation higher (this is not unique to SaaS businesses). A smarter strategy is often to use this as leverage to gain stronger offers off the free psychological existing valuation and get a higher cash consideration upfront. This can often offset the perceived lost profit from delaying the release of the new product or upgrade. With the tituba business primed for sale and a solid valuation in mind, its now time to turn to your exit options. SaaS business owners who to wish sell, generally speaking, have four avenues available to them: Marketplace Through networks like BizBuySell or BizQuest, owners can list their business for sale, similar to classified ads or Craigslist. Auction See which buyer will bid the highest through this platform.

Broker Hire experts to handle the who is curley details and get the highest price on your behalf. Direct Take the drawing cold approach and handle the details yourself. Each approach has its pros and cons. Let us break them down for Tips Identity, you: Selling your SaaS business on a marketplace means preparing information on your business and tituba, posting a listing in order to generate interest from buyers that peruse the listings. A popular marketplace is BizBuySell. Low cost You can typically add a listing to a marketplace for just a few hundred dollars. Distribution Youll get a lot of eyes on your posting if you list on a large network with a good reputation. Low demand Marketplaces serve a high volume of listings daily and the history summary, standing out from the drawing crowd is often a problem. Most buyers perusing the listings look for listings with brokers (who use them as well) as they know the Theft listings are likely pre-vetted.

At FE International, our average listing gets only 18 enquiries from third party platforms, from our own network its 300+. Process Be prepared to put in work if youre listing your business on drawing, a marketplace. Tips To Preventing Essay. Youll need to tituba vet qualified buyers, send non-disclosure agreements, negotiate offers, run due diligence, prepare contracts, facilitate transfer of funds/assets, and answer any questions prospects may have about your operation. In other words, theres a lot of room for error if you dont have experience selling businesses. Time The average marketplace sale takes six to nine months to complete. Moreover, the first advantages and disadvantages sale process can be time consuming and distract from your day-to-day operations. Security A marketplace approach means potentially revealing sensitive information about your business into drawing, the public domain and/or to unqualified buyers which may use it against your business. Selling your SaaS business in a marketplace can be a good idea if you have prior experience in the sale process, expertise in SaaS metrics and lowes statement, the time to carry it through. If you dont, this option is time and work intensive. This option solves some of the problems youd encounter in the marketplace, but not all.

An auction allows you to distribute your listing to a wide network within a fixed time period. Its common to sell domains and businesses valued at less than $5,000 via an auction platform. Large distribution You could potentially get thousands of views on your listing if you sell through a large network. Fixed timeframe You can choose how long buyers get to bid on your business, whether a week or a month, which gives some certainty over timing assuming a successful sale. Inexperienced buyers Many people looking to acquire a business for the first time do so through auctions.

Be prepared to do some hand-holding during the sale process, particularly when it comes to due diligence and closing. Value Many auction buyers are looking for businesses valued at less than $5,000. The typical multiple for sales via auction is tituba drawing 0.5-1.5x, so you could end up with a selling price for your SaaS thats substantially lower than what your business is themes for macbeth actually worth. Tituba. Process As above, you are responsible for Tips Identity Theft, running the process end-to-end. Tituba Drawing. This is likely going to take up quite a lot of your time. Lowes Mission Statement. Fees Platforms charge a fixed listing and tituba, success fee of around 10% once the Essay deal has closed. This is drawing more than a marketplace fee and about the themes for macbeth same as a broker, only youll get little support. Security A marketplace approach means potentially revealing sensitive information about your business into the public domain and/or to unqualified buyers which may use it against tituba your business.

If youre trying to quickly sell a small business and have some experience in the arena, an who is curley auction could be a suitable option as long as youre satisfied with a lower valuation and tituba, less secure (more public) process. Using a broker to sell your business is the best bet if your SaaS business is who is curley worth more than $20,000 or if you need expert help managing the drawing details of a sale and themes for macbeth, getting the tituba drawing best value. A good broker will facilitate the whole sale process, including developing marketing materials, contacting prospective buyers, negotiating offers, completing due diligence, drafting the evaluation contract and coordinating the transfer of assets or funds through escrow. Additionally, a broker can help you obtain an accurate valuation of your business and advise on the best terms for your specific case. Large distribution Youll benefit from drawing, a brokers network of qualified buyers who have experience in business sales. This means youll more efficiently find a vetted buyer, and the process itself will take less time. Tips. Full service There are a lot of steps in the sale process, and a broker can see you through from start to finish.

Once you provide the initial business information, your broker can carry out negotiation, due diligence, contract drafting, and closing duties. This will save you a lot of tituba, time as a business owner. Summary. Maximum value Brokers have the experience to accurately value your business using market insight, previous deals and drawing, thorough evaluation of your SaaS metrics. They can help you weigh your offers and negotiate to find your best deal. Security reputable brokers will vet all buyers so that you only talk to those that have passed a qualifying process and have a serious interest in your business.

Brokers will have tried and tested processes and will use secure data rooms to ensure your IP, data and other key items are securely stored throughout. Upfront research Working with buyers who know what theyre doing means that youll need to do some homework. Having organized, updated information on your business is essential to a sale. Fees Upon successful closing, a broker will charge between 10% and 15% of the final sale value usually on a sliding scale as the price of the business increases. This fee will likely be offset by a higher valuation gained by who is curley selling through an tituba drawing expert and the time saved. In most cases, net proceeds meaning the Tips To Preventing Identity Theft Essay sale value minus broker fees are higher than those obtained in a marketplace, auction or direct sale.

Heres a good example of Tim Seidler who sold his business with FE International for $100K more than he thought his business was worth. Using a broker is recommended if you dont have experience selling or dont have the time to invest in tituba drawing the process. Moreover, this option will usually result in To Preventing Identity Essay the maximum proceeds from your sale. Depending on the size of your business, a brokered sale takes between 4 and 8 weeks to complete. You can read more about tituba drawing, how the process works here. Three or four years ago there was no established secondary market for SaaS businesses. If you wanted to sell your software app you had to go through an auction site like Flippa and sell for 6 12 months earnings. These days you can sell through a broker for who is curley, 3+ years earnings and have the tituba drawing process professionally managed.- Rob Walling, Co-Founder of Drip. The final option is to handle the sale on your own. This means using your network and making cold calls or emails usually to other business owners in your industry to find potential buyers. No fees A direct sale can cost you less than the other options if youre able to find a buyer and themes, close the drawing sale.

However, youll likely end up paying fees for legal advice. Cold outreach Not many people enjoy conducting this approach to lead generation and for good reason. Cold calling can take a lot of who is curley, time, has a low success rate and you also run the risk of exposing sensitive information to the competition. Process As with using a marketplace or auction, youll need to handle the sale process from start to finish. Speed Direct sales can take anywhere from 3 to 24 months, with you doing all of the legwork. You may need to hire an accountant or assistant to do this on your behalf while you continue to run the drawing business (in case the sale does not complete).

Lower offers many acquisitions by Tips Identity Theft strategic counter parties (e.g. Drawing. competitors) are either at a low overall valuation or with an underwhelming mix of cash versus equity. Who Is Curley. The cost of replication is tituba drawing often lower to To Preventing Essay a strategic than a non-strategic. Strategics often seem acquisitions to maximize opportunity costs, but that does not mean they will pay the market rate or offer a high cash consideration (be wary of acqui-hires!) If youre experienced or if youve already been approached by potential buyers, a direct sale might be a good option. However, you should still consider using a broker to tituba drawing run a competitive marketing process once youve secured a good lead as this can lead to greater execution certainty from themes, that lead and a higher sale price. Heres a chart for easy reference of the pros and cons of each methods of sale. How Do I Determine What My SaaS Business is Worth? Now you know all about valuation, exit strategy and sale options for your SaaS business, the best way to drawing get a good sense on how much your business is worth is to speak a broker.

They will be able to calculate your profit (SDE) accurately and To Preventing Theft Essay, advise on tituba drawing, the multiple applicable based on their assessment of the business and previous transactions. A good broker will give you the best advice on exit strategy and lowes, timing, irrespective of whether this is in their short-term interest. The best advice might not be to sell right now, instead to do three things to lift the valuation and come back in 3-6 months with a more valuable business for sale. Thats a win for everybody. Are you interested in drawing selling your SaaS business? Fill out this short form and mission, get a confidential valuation.

Latest posts by Thomas Smale (see all) Walmart vs. Amazon: A Comparison of Affiliate #038; Fulfillment Programs - August 24, 2017 Amazons FBA Locks Out New Users Over The Holiday Season - October 14, 2016 Our 6th Birthday Giveaway! - August 12, 2016. Great article, Thomas. Tituba. Very detailed use of real data here. Downloaded the cheat sheet as well, saves me searching for definitions every time! Thomas Smale says.

Thanks! Hope you find it helpful if enough people like it well look into adding/improving on it. Interesting to learn more about when SDE multiples are used. I always heard about revenue multiples but it totally makes sense when it comes to herodotus the history a smaller business. Many Saas founds have unrealistic expectations of making billions from there 5k mrr app. Thomas Smale says. Thanks Shawn. Yes, there is a lot of tituba, misinformation out there! Good information! Clearly well researched, and I always love an who is curley in-depth, well-researched article. Great work!

While not mentioned, Chargify also integrates with ChartMogul #128578; This was a very insightful post to a question that many of us founders wonder the answer to. Really good post impressed by the quality of the listings your firm gets and the manner in tituba which you handle them congrats! Thomas Smale says. Thanks Dave glad you found it useful and who is curley, thanks for the kind words! Sandipp Vijj says. Comprehensive article. Thank you ! Very nice article, good frameworks to structure the discussion. One thing potential sellers and buyers should know about SDE: owner compensation includes not only salary, bonus and retained profit, but also personal expenses run through the tituba drawing business quite common for who is curley, small business owners.

Thomas Smale says. Hi Mark, yes this is true. We will always put together SDE numbers from what a seller provides to us as a raw P#038;L, so generally no need to do that yourself as usually just causes confusion. Many business owners (especially small businesses) never realise their business is valuable as profits will often be close to zero when taking into account discretionary costs/owner compensation. Guides, whitepapers, podcasts, articles, and downloadables on buying and selling online businesses.

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What Quilting and Embroidery Can Teach us About Narrative Form. Many more times a day than I believe to be normal, I will catch something falling from my desk, mid-air. In my hand will be an object that I myself just knocked over the edgea teacup, a pair of scissors, a can of bright pens. And in the moments immediately after making the catch, Ill be flooded with a memory that I had otherwise lost, a snapshot of my life from a very different place and time, when I opened my elbow and snatched something out of the air. Ive been making this motion all my life. My right arm throws something to my left.

A neurologist could probably explain both my rampant clumsiness and the relationship between reflex and synapse that sends the tituba, mind zinging haphazardly through time from for macbeth one saved mug to another. But as a nonfiction writer, this snatching of lost memories reminds me that the drawing, narratives we live inside are never linear from the past the post, start. Our stories are patterns of tituba drawing experiences, a few knit together and the vast remainder discarded as scrap. The idea of human memory as a folded or patchwork process is familiar to herodotus, those who read and write braided essays. Each narrative thread in a literary braid interrupts other narratives in a pattern that recalls the winding of three strings. In a braided essay, the reader can visit the past and tituba future alternately, skipping across time and summary space as if following the path through a distracted mind.

But the tituba drawing, real beauty of a successful braid is how the threads combine thematically to form a more complete and pliable piece of nonfiction. A literary braid also makes the quiet argument that all stories are perhaps bound this way, in handfuls that dont abide by chronological time. For me, the first past the post advantages, braided form is also dropping hints that some stories can only be written this way. Of course, this type of drawing thinking goes against what most of us learned, at Tips Theft, small, kidney-shaped desks, about how good writing is built from the ground up, like a skyscraper. Now that I find myself at the front of classrooms much more often than in desks, Im surprised to see how writers of all levels feel compelled to drawing, follow those linear blueprints that our first English teachers passed on, often to the detriment of first past and disadvantages their creative work. In a recent article in the LSE Review of Books , the tituba, writer Katie Collins describes how writers in the social sciences often use the language of who is curley buildings to describe a piece of writing. Tituba Drawing! Arguments must have frameworks and To Preventing Identity Theft foundations or they might be shaky and even fall down . Collins says that academics use this language to bring a sense of order and rationality to their naturally rambling thoughts. Drawing! Lately though, Ive noticed that the language of text-as-building is also permeating my writing groups and first the post advantages nonfiction classrooms. In workshop, we tell each other that narratives might need to be shored up with facts, that an drawing essay could be buttressed with scene, or even that a memoir might use a stronger foundation through backstory. (My italics.) So it seems that we creative writers, too, are comforted in thinking that, like a new hotel, our progress is moving in a straight line, from one floor to the next, in a shape that is already recognizable to the public.

But what if in forcing our stories into a linear, sequential form, we risk oversimplifying the richness of who is curley human experience? When I was ten, I was gifted a book called Subversive Stitches . I went straight to my mothers dictionary, which stood on a literal pedestal beside her desk, to figure out drawing what subversive meant. Lowes Mission! Afterwards, fanning the pages of tituba my new crafting bookfull of patterns for Tips To Preventing Identity, embroidering shoes and tituba drawing cats and the phrase Girl Power! with daisies in the OI thought I had misunderstood the definition. But it turns out that stitching does, in fact, have a long history of subversion. And lately, because embroidery hoops and balls of wool are falling from my desktop as often as pens and pencils, Ive been thinking about who is curley, how stitches might help writers break from the traditions of built texts. Talking about texts in terms of tituba thread pushes the braided essay further in favor of other nonlinear and decentered models of creative nonfictionforms that seem exceptionally relevant today. What if in forcing our stories into a linear, sequential form, we risk oversimplifying the richness of psychological human experience? Quilting is best known as a domestic art, but traditional quilts follow deeply coded patterns that communicate much more than comfort and artistry. A quilts surface can often be read through linguistic and graphic cues. In many cultures, quilts act as historical documents that preserve narratives about place and identity. The scholar Mara Witzling writes that quilts historically enabled women to speak the truth about their lives by tituba joining many disparate fragments, which when read together make a specific and Tips To Preventing Theft Essay often subversive utterance. In 19th century America, quilts made many different utterances: they could transmit a local history, recount one version of a family feud, or physically connect living women to their ancestors by combining inherited fabrics.

Before womens suffrage arrived, American women also made quilts to express their political sentiments. Tituba Drawing! Many examples of political quilts, like those credited with securing the presidency for William McKinley, joined campaign ribbons with fabric and other text-based materials. Free! These quilts gave a voice to women who could not yet legally submit their votes. Like every quilt Ive started but never finished, many traditional quilted patterns begin in the middle. First, the quilter chooses the tituba, centerpiece and, then, works outward, attaching sections of lowes fabric with even stitches as the blanket begins to expand. Colors, textures, and drawing weights are joined gradually to develop a composite image. Lowes Statement! Quilters call this process piecing. As a material metaphor for nonfiction, writers interested in new forms might consider piecing sections of text as a means of working outwards from a kind of center. This center could be the most significant or challenging moment in an essay. From there, the process of piecing a text, rather than writing it in a straight line, could free the writer from concerns about repetition, foundations, and chronology.

In a quilted essay, a newspaper headline might fall beside a personal scene, and beside other diverse materials that build gradually toward a larger complex utterance. To talk about a quilted text, we writers might admire the variety and contrast of the materials an drawing author chooses or the Tips Identity Theft Essay, way a writer situates sections carefully, in conversation, so we readers can still keep our eyes on the center. Historically, embroidered pieces like tapestries and tituba drawing applique samplers have recorded the mission, types of personal narratives that were never saved on drawing paper. One display at the new African American History Museum in Washington, DC, features Ashleys Sack , a cotton bag from herodotus summary 1851, which originally carried a dress, three handfuls of pecans, and a lock of haira mothers gift to her nine-year-old daughter, who was sold away from her. In 1921, the daughters granddaughter, Ruth Middleton, embroidered fifty-two words into the sack, the story of three generations of women experiencing slavery. She used pink floss to embroider the sacks central line: It be filled with my love always . It is the drawing, brevity of this textlimited by the medium that Middleton usedthat leaves us the space to understand the evaluation, fracturing of this family and the limited ways that many people have to pass along their own histories. Ashleys Sack also reveals how, in many cases, significant narratives could only be told through nonlinear structures and were preserved only because they were attached to utilitarian objects or because they were decorative. Embroidery is a decorative technique that combines two materials.

If you want to tituba, start embroidering, youll need something called floss a material richer in color and herodotus the history summary more texturized than sewing thread. Floss is designed to get noticed. An artist chooses a floss that will bring out the subtle characteristics of the tituba, fabric below without letting its color or texture overwhelm. Floss is evaluation, made from fibers, just like the fabric it details. We might consider the literary equivalents of floss to be the rich and often brief lines of a memoir that we pause overthe lines that shine because they appear in small patches that might overwhelm the piece if overdoneand writers might also learn from embroidery how to massage a revealing description into a hard knot of facts. When crafted tactfully, a beautifully described personal scene, like a stitched text, can reveal the complex layers that compose a larger narrative. Today, artist Gina Adams, who traces her heritage to both indigenous and colonial Americans, embroiders text from broken American Indian treaties onto vintage American quilts. Drawing! Ive always had these two sides within me, says Adams, who stitches in protest of the more than 370 Native treaties broken by the U.S. government and as a way to past the post and disadvantages, communicate the duality of her heritage. Tituba Drawing! My work, she adds, is both a political statement and an apology. From Adamss stitching, we can also see that writing the Essay, truest version of a story is often a process of tituba unifying disparate and sometimes contradictory materials. A beautifully described personal scene, like a stitched text, can reveal the complex layers that compose a larger narrative. A Knitting Trick for Beginnings and Endings.

As threaded structures go, knitting has always gotten the advantages and disadvantages, worst rap. Tituba! In an 1850 Currier Ives lithograph, The Life Age of Woman. Stages of the post advantages and disadvantages Womans Life from the Cradle to the Grave , the final figure is a hundred-year-old grandmother who listless knits till death appears, according to drawing, the caption underlining her image. Culturally, knitting is the practice women take up when they have nothing left to do, but new research says that taking up knitting, like starting Sudoku or a crossword ritual, sharpens and hones the themes for macbeth, mind. Finnish school children learn to knit before they learn to read. Many progressive education models suggest that early knitting helps link the drawing, left and right hemispheres of the brain and mission statement supports children in learning the alphabet. Tituba Drawing! By third grade, in Finland, the kids switch to crochet, which compliments the students first lessons in math and reading. Studies suggest that knitting can relieve symptoms of who is curley depression and anxiety, and tituba drawing slow the progress of cognitive diseases. Albert Einstein knitted; so does Christopher Walken. You could say that my writing isnt quite right.

That all the mission, beginnings have endings in them, writes Lidia Yuknavitch in her essay Woven. For a knit object to appear to tituba drawing, be made of mission statement one continuous piece of drawing yarn, the artist has to statement, hide the loose ends. Drawing! This technique, which is advantages, especially useful in finishing a sleeve or an infinity scarf, is called weaving the ends back into the body. As a reader of nonfiction, one of the sensations Im always coming back for tituba drawing, is that feeling, at for macbeth, the end of tituba a piece, of wanting to start again. I relish revisiting openings that seem like they were preparing me for the conclusion from the start. If writers thought more often, as knitters do, about hiding their ends in their beginnings, they might find more useful ways of troubleshooting both techniques. Someday, when Im really stuck, I might end up thinking to myself, This opening feels lumpy. Ill try weaving in my ends.

Piecing an essay, embroidering a scene, knitting the end to the beginning: what I mean in championing more threaded literary forms is not a kind of relativism about truth or chronology in nonfiction. Zadie Smith, whom I think of as a writer who hides essays in her novels, writes, Time travel is a discretionary art: a pleasure trip for some and a horror story for others. Words and their forms carry the weight of themes for macbeth ideologies. If we talk about writing using only the language of buildings, we suggest that stories of all kinds need to live in these rigid, singular formsforms that historically didnt preserve many kinds of narratives, forms that even render some true stories unrecognizable. So the notion that nonfiction could be non-linear for tituba, a reason is not purely an aesthetic claim. What did it mean for a black woman to be an artist in evaluation, our grandmothers time? asks Alice Walker. It is a question with an answer cruel enough to stop the tituba, blood. Some stories, I argue, have been and themes for macbeth can only be written in tituba drawing, other ways. Psychological! Zadie Smith argues that progress of any kind is not linear. If we know our personal and cultural history, we can never arrive at tituba, the end of an essay, or an era, thinking, Yesfinished with that topic now . We cannot go forward imagining that we will keep moving without ever revisiting our lessons.

If we forget this, we are at first past the post advantages, risk of sliding back to those horrors. On the contrary, what I hope to suggest is that threaded, decentered forms of tituba drawing nonfiction enact this practice of revival, of glancing back as a means of propulsion. Where thread and memory are related, subversion means that threaded objects have allowed many voices to adapt to restrictive environments. Psychological Evaluation! These forms also reveal that not all true stories have been visible or lived in straight lines. In her lectures, visual and textile artist Anne Hamilton has suggested that tapestries inherently recall collaboration and tituba interconnectedness in who is curley, the way that the story of a family, or of tituba drawing a nation, is in fact made of many individual stories that link and inform the others. For me, threaded literary forms also suggest that minds, like communities, move not from one logical point onward but rather in conversation with our histories and psychological our many, many selvesforever pushing against what has happened and into drawing what is happening next. For Further Reading: Nonfiction Inhabiting or About Threaded Forms. Susan Griffin, Red Shoes

Griffin alternates personal and academic nonfiction styles to develop a meditation on the color red, on fabric, on intimacy, and on the ways we write about bodily experiences both in and outside of the academy. Gretchen Henderson and Allison Dalton, Unstitched States This ongoing collaborative project, which came together through a process much like a quilting circle or quilting bee, unites hybrid texts by artists who were asked to respond to Tips To Preventing Identity, the outcome of the 2016 elections. Henderson, who previously headed the Kenyon Review Hybrid Book Arts Workshop, calls it a testament of tituba drawing solidarity to the principles of equality and dignity. Christine Wilks, Fitting the first, Pattern or being a dressmakers daughter: a memoir in pieces This interactive essay takes the form of a dress pattern and interrogates the space between text and textile. Wilks, whose mother was a dressmaker, asks her audience to bring their own interpretations to the process of reading and storytelling as they stitch together the literal pieces of her narrative on screen. Lidia Yuknavitch, Woven This essay interweaves personal stories of childhood, birth, and personal abuse with myths about water spirits to consider how narratives of physical trauma can and have always been told. Rachel May, Quilting With a Modern Slant. In this book, May grounds readers in the history of quilting and its traditional techniques while telling the stories of seventy young quilters who are using innovative patterns to build modern quilted narratives.

Wow I am spellbound by the way you framed quilting amazingly written. Kyoko Moris wonderful memoir, Yarn, brings life, knitting and writing together. As a writer who also quilts (and dyes and embellishes), Ive long been drawn (like a thread) to narratives using or betraying their textural origins. Tituba Drawing! Loved Treasures in who is curley, the Trunk, an exploration of the quilting history of the Oregon Trail. Also Janisse Rays Wild Card Quilt. Where Are All the tituba drawing, Rural Gay Poets?

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20 paragraph essay Has the five-paragraph essay, long a staple in tituba, school writing curricula, outlived its usefulness? The venerable writing tool has largely fallen out of favor among influential English/language arts researchers and professional associations. Lowes Statement? Rigid and constraining are the two words critics often use to describe the drawing format. There's no denying that a five-paragraph essay-comprising an introduction with a thesis, three paragraphs each with a topic sentence and supporting details, and a conclusion-is highly structured, even artificial, in format. Yet many teachers still rely on it at least to some degree. Supporters of the lowes mission method argue that, used judiciously, it can be a helpful step on the road to tituba drawing better writing for emerging writers.

You can't break the rules until you know the rules. Free Psychological Evaluation? That's why for me, we definitely teach it and we teach it pretty strongly, said Mark Anderson, a teacher at the Jonas Bronck Academy in New York City, who recently helped devise a framework for grading student writing based on the five-paragraph form. Long before graphic organizers and other writing tools entered teachers' toolkits, students whittled away at tituba drawing, five-paragraph essays. Just where the form originated seems to be something of a mystery, with some scholars pointing to origins as far back as classical rhetoric. Today, the debate about the form is intertwined with broader arguments about literacy instruction: Should it be based on a formally taught set of skills and strategies? Should it be based on Identity, a somewhat looser approach, as in tituba drawing, free-writing workshop models, which are sometimes oriented around student choice of topics and evaluation, less around matters of grammar and form? Surprisingly, not much research on writing instruction compares the five-paragraph essay with other tools for teaching writing, said Steve Graham, a professor of educational leadership and innovation at tituba drawing, Arizona State University, who has studied writing instruction for more than 30 years. Instead, meta-analyses seem to point out who is curley general features of effective writing instruction.

Among other things, they include supportive classroom environments in which students can work together as they learn how to draft, revise, and edit their work; some specific teaching of drawing, skills, such as learning to combine sentences; and finally, connecting reading and content acquisition to mission writing, he said. As a result, the five-paragraph essay remains a point of drawing, passionate debate. A quick Google search turns up hundreds of psychological evaluation, articles, both academic and personal, pro and con, with titles like If You Teach or Write the 5-Paragraph Essay-Stop It! duking it out with In Defense of the Five-Paragraph Essay. One basic reason why the form lives on is that writing instruction does not appear to be widely or systematically taught in teacher-preparation programs, Graham said, citing surveys of writing teachers he's conducted. It's used a lot because it provides a structure teachers are familiar with, he said. They were introduced to drawing it as students and they didn't get a lot of preparation on how to who is curley teach writing. The advent of drawing, standardized accountability assessments also seems to have contributed, as teachers sought ways of helping students respond to time-limited prompts, said Catherine Snow, a professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. It simplified the tasks in the classroom and it gives you structures across students that are comparable and gradable, because you have real expectations for structure, she said. It's not clear whether the Common Core State Standards' new emphases in writing expectations have impacted the for macbeth five-paragraph essay's popularity one way or another. I don't connect the two in tituba, my mind, Anderson said.

There is more informational writing and analytical writing, but I haven't got a sense that the psychological evaluation five paragraph format is tituba necessarily the best way to teach it. Still, Anderson argues that structure matters a great deal when teaching writing, and psychological evaluation, the five-paragraph essay has that in spades. At a prior school, Anderson found that a more free-form workshop model in use tended to tituba fall short for students with disabilities and those who came without a strong foundation in spelling and grammar. The format of a five-paragraph essay provided them with useful scaffolds. Themes? The structure guides them to organizing their ideas in a way that is drawing very clear, and even if they're very much at a literal level, they're at least clearly stating what their ideas are, he said. Yes, it is very formulaic. But that's not to who is curley say you can't have a really good question, with really rich text, and engage students in that question. On the drawing other hand, scholars who harbor reservations about the Tips To Preventing Identity Theft five-paragraph essay argue that it can quickly morph from support to drawing straitjacket.

The five-paragraph essay lends itself to persuasive or argumentative writing, but many other types of writing aren't well served by it, Snow pointed out. You would not use a five-paragraph essay to structure a book review or a work memorandum. To teach it extensively I think undermines the whole point of writing, she said. The History Summary? You write to communicate something, and that means you have to adapt the form to tituba the function. Melissa Mazzaferro, a middle school writing teacher in East Hartford, Conn., tries to draw from the potential strengths of the summary five-paragraph essay when she teaches writing, without adhering slavishly to it.

A former high school teacher, Mazzaferro heard a lot of complaints from her peers about the weak writing skills of drawing, entering high school students and ultimately moved to statement middle school to look into the problem herself. Her take on the debate: It's worth walking students through some of the classic five-paragraph-essay strategies-compare and contrast, cause and effect-but not worth insisting that students limit themselves to three points, if they can extend an idea through multiple scenarios. Middle school especially is where they start to learn those building blocks: how you come up with a controlling idea for a writing piece and how you support it with details and tituba drawing, examples, she said. You want to Theft draw your reader in, to have supportive details, whether it's five paragraphs or 20. That is where it's a great starting point. But, she adds, it shouldn't be an ending point.

By the tituba drawing time students enter 9th grade, Mazzaferro says that students should be developing more sophisticated arguments. Summary? I used to help a lot of kids write their college essays, and whenever I saw a five-paragraph essay, I'd make them throw it out and start over, she said. At that point, you should be able to break the rules.

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essay part of tituba, speech To change text size, use the browser commands. In the toolbar, select View Zoom Zoom In, Reset or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + to zoom in, COMMAND - to Tips Identity Theft zoom out or COMMAND 0 to reset. In the toolbar, select View Zoom In, Actual Size or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + (Mac) or CTRL + (Windows) to tituba zoom in, COMMAND - (Mac) or CTRL - (Windows) to zoom out past, or COMMAND 0 (Mac) or CTRL 0 (Windows) to view actual size. In the drawing, toolbar, select View Zoom Zoom In, Reset or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press COMMAND + (Mac) or CTRL + (Windows) to zoom in, COMMAND - (Mac) or CTRL - (Windows) to zoom out first, or COMMAND 0 (Mac) or CTRL 0 (Windows) to view actual size. In the toolbar, select Options Zoom Zoom In, Custom or Zoom Out. On the keyboard, press CTRL + to zoom in, CTRL - to tituba zoom out or CTRL 0 to reset.

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech : the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the herodotus the history summary, adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the tituba drawing, word is , but how the summary, word is used . In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and tituba a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word's part of evaluation, speech can change from one sentence to tituba the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by an exercise. Books are made of ink, paper, and themes glue. In this sentence, books is a noun, the subject of the sentence. Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. Here books is a verb, and drawing its subject is Bridget. In this sentence, walk is Tips To Preventing Identity, a verb, and its subject is the pronoun we.

The mail carrier stood on the walk . In this example, walk is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the mail carrier stood. The town decided to build a new jail . Here jail is a noun, which is the tituba, object of the infinitive phrase to build. The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us. Here jail is who is curley, part of the compound verb would jail. They heard high pitched cries in drawing, the middle of the night. In this sentence, cries is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb heard. The baby cries all night long and all day long.

But here cries is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby. The next few sections explain each of the herodotus summary, parts of speech in detail. Tituba Drawing? When you have finished, you might want to test yourself by trying the exercise. Written by Heather MacFadyen. The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb is lowes statement, highlighted : Dracula bites his victims on the neck. The verb bites describes the action Dracula takes. In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs.

Here the compound verb will plant describes an action that will take place in the future. My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly. In this sentence, the verb was (the simple past tense tense of is) identifies a particular person and the verb remember describes a mental action. Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his diaries and his bicycle were destroyed . In this sentence, the compound verb were destroyed describes an tituba drawing, action which took place in the past.

Written by Heather MacFadyen. A noun is themes for macbeth, a word used to tituba name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns: Late last year our neighbours bought a goat . Portia White was an opera singer . The bus inspector looked at all the lowes statement, passengers' passes . According to Plutarch , the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C. Drawing? Philosophy is of little comfort to psychological evaluation the starving . A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb. Many common nouns, like engineer or teacher, can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an tituba drawing, author while a woman was called an Tips To Preventing Identity, authoress -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to tituba drawing refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences. David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor. Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an for macbeth, actress in the 1780s.

The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for a waiter or a waitress Noun Plurals. Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding -s or -es, as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to tituba drawing be punished. Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident. As they walked through the silent house, they were startled by an unexpected echo . First Advantages And Disadvantages? I like to shout into the quarry and listen to the echoes that return. He tripped over a box left carelessly in the hallway. Tituba Drawing? Since we are moving, we will need many boxes . There are other nouns which form the for macbeth, plural by changing the last letter before adding s. Some words ending in f form the plural by deleting f and adding ves, and words ending in y form the plural by deleting the tituba, y and lowes statement adding ies, as in the following pairs of tituba drawing, sentences:

The harbour at themes for macbeth Marble Mountain has one wharf . There are several wharves in Halifax Harbour. Warsaw is tituba, their favourite city because it reminds them of their courtship. The vacation my grandparents won includes trips to twelve European cities . The children circled around the headmaster and shouted, Are you a mouse or a man? The audience was shocked when all five men admitted that they were afraid of mice . Other nouns form the plural irregularly. If English is your first language, you probably know most of these already: when in doubt, consult a good dictionary. In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to free psychological something else.

Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter s. You can form the tituba drawing, possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in Identity, s by adding an apostrophe and s, as in the following sentences: The red suitcase is Cassandra's . The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's . The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant's screams. The miner's face was covered in coal dust. You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in s by adding an tituba drawing, apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and s, as in the following examples: The bus's seats are very uncomfortable. The bus' seats are very uncomfortable. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus' eggs.

Felicia Hemans's poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. Felicia Hemans' poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in who is curley, s by adding an tituba, apostrophe and a s, as in the following examples: The children's mittens were scattered on herodotus summary, the floor of the porch. The sheep's pen was mucked out tituba drawing, every day.

Since we have a complex appeal process, a jury's verdict is not always final. The men's hockey team will be playing as soon as the women's team is finished. Herodotus The History Summary? The hunter followed the drawing, moose's trail all morning but lost it in past the post advantages, the afternoon. You can form the drawing, possessive case of a plural noun that does end in s by adding an apostrophe: The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. The janitors' room is downstairs and to the left. My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the Identity, squirrels' nest. The archivist quickly finished repairing the diaries' bindings. Drawing? Religion is usually the subject of the Tips Identity Theft, roommates' many late night debates. Tituba? Using Possessive Nouns.

When you read the Essay, following sentences, you will notice that a noun in drawing, the possessive case frequently functions as an mission statement, adjective modifying another noun: The miner's face was covered in drawing, coal dust. Here the possessive noun miner's is used to modify the who is curley, noun face and tituba together with the article the, they make up the noun phrase that is the sentence's subject. The concert was interrupted by mission statement the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund. Tituba? The possessive noun dogs' modifies barking, ducks' modifies quacking, and babies' modifies squalling. The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. In this example the possessive noun platypus's modifies the noun eggs and the noun phrase the themes, platypus's eggs is the direct object of the verb crushed.

My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the drawing, squirrels' nest. In this sentence the possessive noun squirrels' is used to modify the noun nest and who is curley the noun phrase the squirrels' nest is the object of the infinitive phrase to locate. There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you capitalise some nouns, such as Canada or Louise, and do not capitalise others, such as badger or tree (unless they appear at the beginning of tituba, a sentence). In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective. If you are interested in the details of these different types, you can read about them in the following sections. You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and lowes statement their adherents are proper nouns.

A proper noun is tituba drawing, the opposite of a common noun. In each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted : The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and who is curley forced to build the fortifications in Halifax . Many people dread Monday mornings. Tituba? Beltane is celebrated on first past the post advantages, the first of tituba drawing, May . Mission? Abraham appears in tituba drawing, the Talmud and in the Koran . Last year, I had a Baptist , a Buddhist , and who is curley a Gardnerian Witch as roommates. Common Nouns. A common noun is tituba, a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted : According to the sign , the nearest town is 60 miles away. All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer . Lowes Mission? I don't understand why some people insist on having six different kinds of tituba, mustard in psychological, their cupboards . The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moose crossing the drawing, road . Many child-care workers are underpaid. Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns, as in the following examples:

The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and sudden increase in their rent. The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensive than meals in ordinary restaurants. Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times . The Diary of Anne Frank is often a child's first introduction to summary the history of the Holocaust . Concrete Nouns. A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: The judge handed the tituba, files to the clerk . Whenever they take the dog to lowes the beach , it spends hours chasing waves . The real estate agent urged the couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles . Tituba? As the car drove past the park , the thump of a disco tune overwhelmed the string quartet's rendition of a minuet . The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a sturdy, cloth-covered board . Abstract Nouns. An abstract noun is To Preventing Theft, a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: Buying the drawing, fire extinguisher was an afterthought . Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood . Tips Essay? Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is transmitted genetically.

Countable Nouns. A countable noun (or count noun ) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count . Tituba? You can make a countable noun plural and statement attach it to a plural verb in tituba, a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted words are countable nouns: We painted the table red and free psychological the chairs blue.

Since he inherited his aunt's library , Jerome spends every weekend indexing his books . Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock . The oak tree lost three branches in the hurricane . Over the course of tituba, twenty-seven years , Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies . Non-Countable Nouns. A non-countable noun (or mass noun ) is psychological evaluation, a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns. The highlighted words in drawing, the following sentences are non-countable nouns: Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen . The word oxygen cannot normally be made plural. Oxygen is first advantages and disadvantages, essential to tituba drawing human life. Since oxygen is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb is rather than the plural verb are. We decided to who is curley sell the furniture rather than take it with us when we moved. You cannot make the noun furniture plural. The furniture is heaped in tituba drawing, the middle of the room.

Since furniture is a non-countable noun, it takes a singular verb, is who is curley, heaped. The crew spread the gravel over the roadbed. You cannot make the non-countable noun gravel plural. Gravel is more expensive than I thought. Since gravel is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb form is. A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. Tituba Drawing? You need to be able to mission recognise collective nouns in order to tituba maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is who is curley, a collective noun: The flock of geese spends most of tituba, its time in the pasture.

The collective noun flock takes the singular verb spends. The jury is dining on mission, take-out chicken tonight. In this example the collective noun jury is the drawing, subject of the singular compound verb is mission, dining. The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. Here the collective noun committee takes a singular verb, meets. The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. In this sentence the tituba, word class is lowes mission statement, a collective noun and takes the singular compound verb was startled. Written by Heather MacFadyen. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun.

You use pronouns like he, which, none, and you to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. A personal pronoun refers to tituba a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case. Subjective Personal Pronouns. A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is the history summary, acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are I, you, she, he, it, we, you, they. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is drawing, a subjective personal pronoun and Tips Identity Theft acts as the subject of the tituba, sentence:

I was glad to find the bus pass in past advantages, the bottom of the green knapsack. You are surely the drawing, strangest child I have ever met. He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him. Who Is Curley? When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner. After many years, they returned to tituba their homeland. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m. Themes? It is on the counter. Are you the delegates from Malagawatch? Objective Personal Pronouns. An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an tituba, object of herodotus the history summary, a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. Tituba Drawing? The objective personal pronouns are: me, you, her, him, it, us, you, and them.

In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun: Seamus stole the selkie's skin and Tips Identity Essay forced her to drawing live with him . The objective personal pronoun her is the direct object of the verb forced and the objective personal pronoun him is the object of the preposition with. After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can. The pronoun it is the direct object of the verb threw. The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and who is curley said, Our leader will address you in five minutes. In this sentence, the pronoun you is the direct object of the verb address. Deborah and Roberta will meet us at tituba drawing the newest cafe in the market. Here the objective personal pronoun us is the lowes, direct object of the tituba, compound verb will meet.

Here the objective personal pronoun me is the Tips Identity Theft, object of the preposition to. I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you . Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun you is the object of the preposition to. Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races. Here the objective personal pronoun her is the object of the infinitive phrase to see. Possessive Personal Pronouns. A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, and theirs.

Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like my, her, and their. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine . Here the possessive pronoun mine functions as a subject complement. Here too the possessive pronoun yours functions as a subject complement. His is on the kitchen counter. In this example, the possessive pronoun his acts as the subject of the sentence. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. In this sentence, the possessive pronoun theirs is the subject of the sentence. Ours is the green one on tituba, the corner. Here too the possessive pronoun ours function as the subject of the sentence. A demonstrative pronoun points to statement and identifies a noun or a pronoun.

This and these refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while that and those refer to things that are farther away in space or time. The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. This and that are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and these and those are used to tituba drawing refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to the history summary note that that can also be used as a relative pronoun. In the tituba drawing, following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun: Here this is used as the subject of the compound verb must not continue. In this example this is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun that is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker. Three customers wanted these . Here these is the direct object of the Tips To Preventing Theft Essay, verb wanted.

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are who, whom, which, what and tituba drawing the compounds formed with the Identity Theft, suffix ever (whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever). Note that either which or what can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that who, whom, or which can also be used as a relative pronoun. You will find who, whom, and occasionally which used to refer to people, and drawing which and what used to refer to things and to animals. Who acts as the subject of a verb, while whom acts as the first past the post advantages and disadvantages, object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal. The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Which wants to see the drawing, dentist first? Which is the subject of the sentence.

Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Similarly who is the subject of the sentence. Whom do you think we should invite? In this sentence, whom is the object of the verb invite. To whom do you wish to speak? Here the interrogative pronoun whom is the object of the preposition to. Who will meet the delegates at the train station? In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun who is the subject of the compound verb will meet.

To whom did you give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun whom is the object of the preposition to. Here the interrogative pronoun what is the direct object of the verb say. You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to lowes another phrase or clause. Drawing? The relative pronouns are who, whom, that, and which. Tips To Preventing Identity? The compounds whoever, whomever, and whichever are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns who and tituba whoever to lowes refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and whom and whomever to refer to tituba drawing the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun whomever is the psychological, direct object of the compound verb may invite. The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the tituba, subject of the verb wins and introduces the subordinate clause who wins the greatest popular vote. This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying candidate. In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to Tips Identity Theft Essay be the most efficient to tituba drawing arrive an who is curley, hour earlier than usual.

In this sentence whom is the direct object of the verb believes and introduces the subordinate clause whom she believes to be the tituba, most efficient. This subordinate clause modifies the noun workers. Whoever broke the first past advantages, window will have to replace it. Here whoever functions as the subject of the verb broke. The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet. In this example which acts as the tituba drawing, subject of the compound verb was left and introduces the subordinate clause which was left in the corridor. The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun crate. I will read whichever manuscript arrives first. Here whichever modifies the noun manuscript and introduces the subordinate clause whichever manuscript arrives first. The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb will read. An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing.

An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody, and someone. Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives. The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here many acts as the lowes statement, subject of the compound verb were invited. The office had been searched and drawing everything was thrown onto the floor. In this example, everything acts as a subject of the compound verb was thrown.

We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. In this sentence, everything is the direct object of theverb donated. Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none . Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: none is the direct object of found. Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. In this example, everyone is the indirect object of the herodotus the history summary, verb give -- the direct object is the tituba drawing, noun phrase a copy of the amended bylaws. Give a registration package to each . Here each is the object of the preposition to. You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the who is curley, clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.

Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is drawing, a reflexive pronoun: Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. For Macbeth? The Dean often does the tituba drawing, photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work. After the themes, party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building. Richard usually remembered to drawing send a copy of his e-mail to himself . Although the landlord promised to who is curley paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves . Intensive Pronouns. An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent.

Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at tituba drawing the same time. Written by Heather MacFadyen. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words.

An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over first the post the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and tituba drawing dank . Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large , yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb.

In the sentence. My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the adverb intricately modifies the adjective patterned. Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. The History Summary? In the sentence. Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles (the, a, an) to be adjectives. A possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) is tituba drawing, similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an who is curley, adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective my modifies assignment and the noun phrase my assignment functions as an object.

Note that the possessive pronoun form mine is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective your is used to drawing modify the noun phrase phone number; the entire noun phrase your phone number is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form yours is the history, not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the tituba drawing, possessive adjective his modifies the noun phrase favourite type of past the post and disadvantages, bread and the entire noun phrase his favourite type of bread is the direct object of the drawing, verb sold. After many years, she returned to her homeland.

Here the possessive adjective her modifies the noun homeland and the noun phrase her homeland is the object of the prepositionto. Note also that the form hers is To Preventing, not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the possessive adjective our modifies way and drawing the noun phrase our way is the direct object of the compound verbhave lost. Note that the possessive pronoun form ours is not used to who is curley modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.

Here the possessive adjective their modifies parents and the noun phrase their parents is the object of the preposition by. Note that the tituba drawing, possessive pronoun form theirs is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into who is curley the backyard. In this sentence, the tituba drawing, possessive adjective its modifies ball and past the post advantages and disadvantages the noun phrase its ball is the object of the verb chased. Note that its is the possessive adjective and tituba drawing it's is a contraction for it is. The demonstrative adjectives this, these, that, those, and what are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of mission, books. In this sentence, the tituba drawing, demonstrative adjective that modifies the noun cord and the noun phrase that cord is the object of the preposition over.

This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here this modifies apartment and herodotus summary the noun phrase this apartment is the subject of the drawing, sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, those modifies plates and the noun phrase those plates is the object of the who is curley, verb preferred. In the independent clause, these is the direct object of the verb bought. Note that the tituba, relationship between a demonstrative adjective and lowes a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and tituba drawing an interrogative pronoun. An interrogative adjective (which or what) is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, which can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, which modifies plants and the noun phrase which plants is the To Preventing Identity Theft Essay, subject of the tituba, compound verb should be watered:

What book are you reading? In this sentence, what modifies book and the noun phrase what book is the direct object of the compound verb are reading. An indefinite adjective is past the post advantages and disadvantages, similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective many modifies the noun people and the noun phrase many people is the tituba drawing, subject of the sentence. I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to To Preventing Identity Sudbury. The indefinite adjective any modifies the noun mail and the noun phrase any mail is the direct object of the compound verb will send. They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound. In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun goldfish and tituba drawing the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb found: The title of Kelly's favourite game is All dogs go to heaven. Here the indefinite pronoun all modifies dogs and mission statement the full title is a subject complement.

Written by Heather MacFadyen. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Drawing? An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as how, when, where, how much. While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic ly suffix, most of them must be identified by who is curley untangling the tituba drawing, grammatical relationships within the the history summary, sentence or clause as a whole. Tituba? Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence. In the following examples, each of the who is curley, highlighted words is an adverb: The seamstress quickly made the tituba, mourning clothes. In this sentence, the adverb quickly modifies the verb made and Essay indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed. The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.

Similarly in this sentence, the adverb patiently modifies the verb waited and describes the manner in which the midwives waited. The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel. In this sentence the tituba drawing, adverb boldly modifies the adjective spoken. We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously . Here the who is curley, adverb more modifies the tituba drawing, adverb expeditiously. Unfortunately , the bank closed at three today . In this example, the adverb unfortunately modifies the entire sentence.

You can use a conjunctive adverb to lowes join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are also, consequently, finally, furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, still, then, therefore, and thus. A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon. The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs: The government has cut university budgets; consequently , class sizes have been increased. He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore , he decided to make something else. The report recommended several changes to the ways the tituba drawing, corporation accounted for donations; furthermore , it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately. The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally , the doors to the stadium were opened. Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed , the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement. Written by Heather MacFadyen.

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is who is curley, called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. Tituba? The book is the post advantages, beneath the table. Tituba Drawing? The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table.

She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun book in first past and disadvantages, space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but, by, despite, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, out, outside, over, past, since, through, throughout, till, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, and without. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition without introduces the noun fear. The prepositional phrase without fear functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the tituba, land when the government was defeated. Here, the preposition throughout introduces the noun phrase the land. The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The preposition along introduces the noun phrase the banister and the prepositional phrase along the banister acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. Here the preposition under introduces the prepositional phrase under the porch, which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb is hiding. The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. Similarly in this sentence, the preposition in introduces a prepositional phrase in his office, which acts as an statement, adverb describing the location of the missing papers. Written by Heather MacFadyen.

You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and tituba drawing clauses, as in herodotus the history, the following example: I ate the pizza and tituba drawing the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready. Psychological? Co-ordinating Conjunctions. You use a co-ordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet) to join individual words, phrases, and drawing independent clauses.

Note that you can also use the conjunctions but and for as prepositions. In the herodotus, following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction: Lilacs and violets are usually purple. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction and links two nouns. This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists, for the screenplay was written by Mae West. In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction for is used to link two independent clauses. Daniel's uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish. Here the co-ordinating conjunction and links two participle phrases (dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish) which act as adverbs describing the verb spends. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the drawing, relationship among the independent clause(s) and the post and disadvantages the dependent clause(s).

The most common subordinating conjunctions are after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, and while. Each of the highlighted words in drawing, the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. The subordinating conjunction after introduces the dependent clause After she had learned to drive. If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Similarly, the subordinating conjunction if introduces the dependent clause If the paperwork arrives on time. Gerald had to free begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. The subordinating conjunction when introduces the dependent clause when his computer crashed. Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs. In this sentence, the dependent clause because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs is introduced by the subordinating conjunction because. Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. Tituba? The most common correlative conjunctions are both. and, either. or, neither. nor,, not only. Who Is Curley? but also, so. as, and whether. or. Tituba Drawing? (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.) The highlighted words in for macbeth, the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: Both my grandfather and my father worked in drawing, the steel plant. In this sentence, the correlative conjunction both. and is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the psychological, compound subject of the sentence: my grandfather and my father.

Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. Here the correlative conjunction either. or links two noun phrases: a Jello salad and a potato scallop. Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to drawing law school. Similarly, the correlative conjunction whether . or links the two infinitive phrases to go to the post and disadvantages medical school and to go to tituba drawing law school. The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub. In this example the psychological evaluation, correlative conjunction not only . but also links the two noun phrases (the school and tituba neighbouring pub) which act as direct objects. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs. Written by Heather MacFadyen. An interjection is a word added to lowes mission a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch , that hurt! Oh no , I forgot that the exam was today. Tituba Drawing? Hey ! Put that down!

I heard one guy say to another guy, He has a new car, eh ? I don't know about free psychological evaluation, you but, good lord , I think taxes are too high!